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\Reprintcd^ ivifk Additions^ from IIarper's Macazine.J 




{Alt right* resumed.} 




The world is becoming so accustomed to having its history 
"written up to date" in the daily newspaper that it is apt 
to overlook the exigencies of serial and other publications. 
Magazines are printed, some of them, months ahead of their 
issue to the public. The production of books is undertaken 
still more leisurely, both by author and publisher. I venture 
to ask the critical reader of the following pages to bear these 
facts in mind. 

While this work has been passing through the press there 
have been " births, marriages, and deaths." Ancient landmarks, 
historical and otherwise, have given place to new ones. The 
Cock Tavern has disappeared and the new home of Tlie Daily 
Telegraph has arisen. Several men, whose honoured names still 
stand in my chronicles as among the living, have laid down their 
pens for ever. New claims have been made upon the courage and 
enterprise of war correspondents and artists. In short, the world 
has not stood still. If I have exhibited in these pages even the 
shadow of its progress, I have accomplished all I could hope to 
achieve. The history of the Newspaper Press changes almost as 
rapidly as the effects which a landscape artist vainly tries to fix 
upon his canvas in permanent form and colour. If these pen-and- 
ink reminiscences of a great subject are judged in the spirit of 
this similitude, I shall not be expected to be as ubiquitous as 
the daily journalist, whose ink is never dry and whose chronicles 
are never ending. 


I am prompted to set down these few words by way of preface 
because, two London journals dying while one of my papers 
which mentioned their existence was being printed in Harper's 
Magazine, three thousand miles away, I was " taken to task " 
by several correspondents, and by a scrupulously righteous 
critic, for being "behind the age," inasmuch as the unfortu- 
nate publications in question were not mentioned in the past 
instead of the present tense. 

The postponement of this republication of the Harper articles 
until the present time is also sufficient reason for a few prefa- 
tory words. This being so, it would be an act of ingra- 
titude were I to let the opportunity go by without expressing 
my best thanks for the kindly and courteous assistance which 
I have received at the hands of the leading Journalists of London. 
My intercourse with them, for the purposes of this volume, was 
inspired by a commission from the editor of a famous magazine 
to write a series of articles "about the London Newspapers, 
with personal notes on the foremost men connected with the 
Metropolitan Press.'* A difficult task, I have fulfilled it to the 
best of my ability, and Journalistic London is the result It 
only claims to be a contribution towards a great subject ; a 
sketch, and not a finished picture ; the studies for which have, 
however, been made under circumstances which I recall with 
pleasure and satisfaction. 

The reception accorded to the work, during its progress in 
the magazine, on both sides of the Atlantic, encourages me to 
hope that in its presient extended and more complete shape, it 
will enjoy a no less fortunate career of popular favour. 


London, September^ 1882. 





Traitors' Gate and the Griffin—" Footprints on the Sands of Time " — 
Ancient Taverns— The earliest London Printing-offices — Cobbett's 
Register — Theodore Hook and John Bull — Crane Court, a jour- 
nalistic nursery — The Globe — An interesting Literary Period — The 
Origin of Punch — Projectors in Council — Douglas Jerrold " At 
Home" — Wit and Humour — "Wishing him Joy" — The Punch 
Dinners — Charles Dickens and Mark Lemon — The newest Recruits 
on the Punch Staff — The London Journal and the " Waverley 

A^ \j V ^J19 •• •• «a •• •• •• •• •• •• A 



London and New York Centres of Journalism — Provincial Journals at 
Head-quarters — Notable Country Papers and Editors — Press men 
in Parliament — Mr. Joseph Cowen — Cobbett and Forbes — A Period 
of Scurrility — Mr. Gladstone's theory that the Provincial Press is 
better informed than the London Press — Country Editors, Past and 
Present — Election Forecasts — The Political Change of 1880 — The 
Gin-and- Water Bohemia of Former Days — Lord Palmerston's 
Defence of Mr. Delane — Political Jibes at leading Journals — Lord 
Bcaconsfield's repudiation of his early connection with the Press — 
A Liberal Journal on the statesmanship of the Tory Chief — Mr. 
and Mrs. Disraeli ... .. .. .. .. .. .. 27 




Merely Chatting about a Great Subject — First Number of The Daily 
AVze/J— Charles Dickens in the Editorial Chair — The Paper dis- 
agrees with Cobden and Bright — Early Struggles— The American 
War — rfarriet Martineau and Queen Victoria — Mr. Robinson's 
new Plan of War-correspondence— The Staff of The Daily News — 
Career of Mr. Forbes — Famous Feats of Writing and Telegraphy — 
"King of Correspondents" — Mr. Justin McCarthy and the Irish 
Agitation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. •• •• 49 



Inside the Office — Mr. John C. Macdonald — The Composing Room — 
Kitchen and Cloak Rooms — Reporting Debates through the Tele- 
phone — The Type-setting Machine — Origin of The Times — The 
"Walter" Press — Chiefs of the Staff — Mr. Delano and his Successor, 
Mr. Chenery .. .. .. 64 



Personal Journalism — Mr. Yates's Training for The World — Success 
— Various Society Journals — Amenities of the Press on both sides of 
the Atlantic — The Lady with the Lamp — Sketch of the Career of 
Mr. Labouchere — Crimping American Citizens — The Attach^ in 
Office — Playing the part of Meagher — Good Cards, and How to use 
them — " The Besieged Resident in Paris " — Below the Gangway — 
Mr. Labouchere as a Theatrical Manager — A Free Lance in Jour- 
nalism — Mr. Grenville-Murray — Truth'' s account of the Editor of 
The Queett's Messenger — Diplomacy and Journalism — What might 
have Been .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 85 


A Holiday that led to Serious Work — " Leader-writer Wanted "—Mr. 
Arnold and the Eastern Ouestion— Discussions with the rrcmicr — 



"Theodore the King" — Mr. Arnold's Literary Labours — The Ex- 
peditions to Assyria and Africa — "The Light of Asia" — Mr. Arnold's 
Reputation in America — The Order of the White Elephant — The 
Iliad of India — Mr. Arnold at Home — Anonymous Journalism from 
Different Points of View — Critics and Criticism — A Word of Advice 
to Beginners in Literature .. .. .. .. .. .. iii 



History of The Daily Telegraph — Mr. Sala and his work— -Leader- 
writers and Special Correspondents — Mr. Kingston — Mr. Edward 
L. Lawson, Editor-in-Chief — Competing with The 7/>«^j— Stories 
of News — The Sensation Shipwreck — Twenty-one Tons of Paper 
used every Day .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 131 



Captain H amber and The Standard — The Editors of The Morning 
Advertiser — The Daily Chronicle^The Pall Mall and The St, 
Jameses Gazette — Mr. Frederick Greenwood and Mr. John Morley 
— The Echo — Mr. Albert Grant— 7"-*^ Hour — Mr. Passmore 
Edwards, M.P. — Adventures of an Editor — Baron Merle's Para- 
graphic Death and Resurrection — An Eccentric Sub-editor — The 
Mystery of Howard Street .. .. .. .. .. .. 155 



Rapid Writing — A Notable Gathering — Adventures of War-corre- 
spondents — "After Sedan" — ^^Mortd l^Espion prussienP'' — Ordered 
to be shot— A Press Fund Dinner — Lord Salisbury on the Profes- 
sion of Journalism — Parliamentary Debates — A Reporter for Ten 
Minutes— Exciting Scenes in and out of the Commons — Remi- 
niscences of a Great Occasion .. .. .. .. .. .. 167 




Reminiscences of Stormy Times — Edward Lloyd at Salisbury Square 
— Richardson's Printing-office and " Pamela" — Historic Ground — 
Lloyd^s Weekly Newspaper — A Novel Mode of Advertising — 
Fighting " The Trade " — The Two Jerrolds, Douglas and Blanchard 
— The Budget — Sunday Journalism— Dr. Sebastian Evans and The 
People — Harrison Ainsworth and Novels in Newspapers .. i88 



The AthenceumSxx Charles Dilke — BelVs Life — The late Serjeant 
Cox and his Newspaper Enterprises — The Field 2sA The Queen — 
Church Papers — The Guardian and its Chief Contributors — The 
Rise and Progress of Trade Journalism — The Ironmonger ,, .. 203 



Mr. Ingram's First Idea of an Illustrated Paper— Charles Knight and 
John Gilbert's Views of the Experiment — Success — Mr. M. Jackson, 
the Art Editor — Famous Artists-correspondents' Adventures in 
War and Peace — The Graphic and the Franco-German War — 
Christmas Numbers — A Brief Biography of W. L. Thomas— What 
led to the Projection of The Graphic — Pique and Prosperity .. 221 



The Oldest and Newest Penny Daily— Sir Algernon Borthwick, Diplo- 
mat and Journalist — A Clerical Fox-hunting Editor — Coleridge and 
The Posl— The Pitt Libel Suit— Murder of Mr. Byrne, Proprietor of 
The Post — The Empire of Queen Victoria — British Interests — The 
London Editor at Work— The World's Half- Way House and Head- 
Centre of the Anglo-Saxon Race .. .. .. .. .. 240 


a photograph by F, York^ 87 

Fireplace in "The Cock" Tavern 
Dr. Johnson's House 
Crane Court 
f. c. burnand . 
J. R. Robinson . 
F. H. Hill . 
Archibald Forbes 
Justin McCarthy 
*The Times* Building {After 
Lancaster Road, London) . 

* The Times * Composing-Room 
Type-Setting Machine 

John Walter, M.P. {Photographed by Window and Grove) . 
*The Times' Printing-Room . . . . 
The Right Hon. Sir William Vernon Harcourt, M.P 

{Photographed by Palmer, Ramsgate) 
John Oxen ford {Photographed by the Lotidon Stereoscopic Company) 
M. Blowitz, Paris Correspondent of 'The Times' 
JOHN Delane {Photographed by the London Stereoscopic Company) 
Dr. William H. Russell {Photographed by Charles Watkins) 
Edmund Yates {Photographed by W, and A, H, Fry) . 
Henry Labouchere, M.P. {Photographed by Van der Weyde Light, 

1Z2 Regent Street, London) 

* The Daily Telegraph ' Stereotyping-Room 
Facsimile of Diploma appointing Mr. Edwin Arnold an 

Officer of the White Elephant 

George Augustus Sala {Photographed by Elliott and Fry, 55 
Baker Street, London) 

Clement Scott {Photographed by the London Stereoscopic Com- 
pany) ........... 


















W. H. MuDFORD {Photographed by Ad. Braun and Co,, Paris) . 145 
Mr. Johnstone, founder of *The Standard* (Pho/o£Taph€d dy 

W, Bradnee, Torquay) . . . . . . --ISS 

Frederick Greenwood {Photographed by S, Prout, Newscomb) 159 
John Morley {Photographed by Arthur J, Melhuish, 12 York 

Place, Portman Square, London) . . . . . .160 

Edward Lloyd {Photographed by Fradelle, 246 Regent Street, 

London) 190 

Blanchard Jerrold {Photographed by H, Lenthall, 222 Regent 

Street, London) 196 

Joseph Knight {Photographed by Twyman and Son, High Street, 

Ramsgate) .......... 200 

Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke {Photographed by the London 

Stereoscopic and Photographic Company) .... 204 
W. H. Smith, M.P. {Photographed by the London Stereoscopic 

Company) 217 

The Late Herbert Ingram, M.P 222 

J. L. Latey {Photographed by James Monte, 313 City Road, London) 224 

M. Jackson {Photographed by W. and D, Downey, London) . 225 
S. Read {Photographed by W, Cobb, Ipswich) . . . .227 
William Simpson {Photographed by Maull and Company, 187 

Piccadilly, London) . . 228 

William L. Thomas 233 

Artists of * The Graphic * 235 

Sir Algernon Borthwick 241 



Traitors' Gate and the Griffin— " Footprints on the Sands of Time"— 
Ancient Taverns — The earliest London Printing - offices — Cobbett'a 
i^c^/j/i-r- Theodoie Hook and John BuU—Cmae: Court, a Journalistic 
nursery— TAe Gloie — An interesting literary period — The origin of 
PttBcA- Projectors in council — Douglas Jerrold "At Home"— Wit and 
humour— " Wishing him joy"— The Punch dinners— Charles Dickens 
and Mark Lemon— The newest recruits omht Punch staS— The London 
Journal and the " Waverley Novels." 

I HUNDRED years ago. Fleet Street was 
the most picturesque, as it is still the most 
characteristic, of London thoroughfares- 
In the earliest days of George the Third, 
Temple Bar "was the portal of an avenue 
of many-gabled houses, from which swung 
trade signs of innumerable variety. There 
were Saracens' Heads and Golden Keys, 
Red Lions and Blue Boars, Bibles and 
Crowns and Mitres. By day they made a 
brave show of colour. At night they 
creaked and groaned a chorus of strange accompaniment to the 


watchmen's hourly records of Time's weary progress. The dirty 
sidewalk was separated from the dirtier roadway by posts, over 
which the boys of the time played leap-frog, while cumbrous 
hackney carriages churned into mud the various refuse flung into 
the street by thoughtless housewives and "idle apprentices." 
Sedan-chairs were carried hither and thither, attended by link- 
boys, and occasionally interrupted by marauding footpads. 
Bob-wigs and buckled shoes were the fashion ; and the miscel- 
laneous crowd that passed through the frowning Bar was as 
picturesque as the street itself. To-day a griffin spreads a pair 
of bat-like wings over the spot where Traitors* Gate barred the 
narrow way. The hybrid monster, which the Corporation have 
set up to mark the city boundary, is the civic crest. Had it 
been reared aloft upon a mighty pillar towering up into the 
clouds, the effect might have been dignified if not impressive. 
Even now, approached from the west, the memorial of Temple 
Bar is not the contemptuous thing severe critics would have us 
believe, though as a work of art it is not altogether satisfactory. 
"The Cock," whose plump head waiter has been sung by the 
Laureate, no longer poses in leaf of gold within the shadow of 
Temple Bar. Such daylight as there is hereabouts now falls 
full upon the gilded bird, and the old eating-room beyond 
the passage over which Grinling Gibbons* chanticleer still 
mounts its ancient guard looks strangely out of keeping with 
the wooden pavement, and the electric lamps of these brand- 
new days. 

The history of Fleet Street would be a chronicle of the rise and 
progress of the London press. It might indeed be made the 
basis of a history of the metropolis, not to say the story of 
England itself, for it has classic links of fact that loop events 
away back in the furthermost ages of darkness. All the more 
fitting is it that the press should set up in this region the fierce 
light that burns upon its ever-flaming altars. Who that is not 


under the constant influence of that thirst of gold which afflicts 
a large majority of the crowd daily hurrying cityward can walk 
along Fleet Street without thinking of the "footprints on the 
sands of time " which this historic thoroughfare recalls ? Shak- 
speare, Ben Jonson, Walter Raleigh, Dryden, Dr. Johnson, Gold- 
smith, Garrick, have met here for work and gossip ; and in later 
days Cobbett and Theodore Hook, Thackeray and Dickens, 
Hood and Jerrold, have carried on the old street's splendid suc- 
cession. The site of London's most famous taverns, it has 
always been a great literary and journalistic centre. A few 
illustrative instances of both these features may be mentioned 
here. Where the Rainbow now dispenses old English fare, the 
Devil Tavern stood. The legend of St. Dunstan tweaking his 
Satanic Majesty's nose originated the sign. Simon Wadloe, 
"the king of skinners," kept the house. He was immortalised 
in Squire Western's favourite song, "Sir Simon the King." 
The tavern had among its customers John Cottington, alias 
"Mull Sack," the highwayman, who divided his favours be- 
tween king and commonwealth, first by picking the pocket 
of Oliver Cromwell, and then by robbing King Charles 
the Second's chambers at Cologne of a vast quantity of 
plate. The impartial thief was finally hanged at Tyburn for 
murder. The Globe was a well-known tavern, frequented by 
Macklin and Tom King the comedians, Carnan the bookseller, 
William Woodfall, the first Parliamentary reporter, and Oliver 

The Cock Tavern, so far as its interior is concerned, remains 
to-day almost in the same condition as it was when Pepys ate a 
lobster there with Mrs. Pierce and Mrs. Knipp. The same long 
gloomy entrance from the street, with the same sober glimmer 
of firelight playing upon sawdust at the end of it ; the same 
high backed seats and old square tables ; the same appetising 
atmosphere, redolent of chops and old ale ; and, one could be 

B 2 


sworn, the very self-same head waiter whom Will Waterproof, 
in Tennyson's ballad, apostrophises in delightful measure: 

" And hence this halo lives about 

The waiter's hands, that reach 
To each his perfect pint of stout, 

His proper chop to each. 
He looks not like the common breed 

That with the napkin dally ; 
I think he came, like Ganymede, 

From some delightful valley," 

The carved fireplace of the olden days remains. It dates 
from the time of James the First ; and on a winter's night it is a 

cheery thing to see the copper kettle of the house swinging over 
the fire, and William, the waiter, making whisky. punch for guests 


who sit by the hot hearth smoking long clay pipes. The Great 
Fire of London stopped at Temple Bar, and saved The Cock. 
During the Plague, in 1665, the landlord closed his house, retired 
into the country, and published the following advertisement in 
The Intelligeptcer : 

" This is to notify that the master of The Cock and Bottle, commonly 
called The Cock Ale- House, at Temple Bar, hath dismissed his servants and 
shut up his house, for this long vacation, intending (God willing) to return at 
Michaelmas next, so that all persons whatsoever who have any Accompts 
with the said Master, or Farthings belonging to the said house, are desired 
to repair thither before the 8th of this instant July, and they shall receive 

One of these coins, the only specimen extant, is preserved in a 
small ebony box, and is shown to any person who has the 
curiosity to inspect it. I examined it the other 
day while a white-haired old gentleman, with a 
frilled shirt front and a high coat collar, sipped his 
punch, and looked like a living reminiscence of an 
old picture of the first days of the centur)'. Every 
now and then you meet here strange men who have a Rip Van 
Winkle air, as if they were revisiting the haunts of their long- 
past youth. 

The earliest printing-offices were in Fleet Street, the earliest 
stores for stationery and books. Wynkyn de Worde (Caxton's 
assistant) lived here at the sign of the Sun. Pope and War- 
burton are said to have first met at Jacob Robinson's book-shop, 
down Inner Temple Lane. On the north corner of Salisbury 
Square, Richardson, the printer and novelist, lived and had his 
office. Chaucer's works were first printed by Thomas Godfrey 
near Temple Bar. Cobbctt's Political Register came out in Bolt 
Court, which is one of the most interesting of the many historical 
courts that abound in Fleet Street. It is still the quaint, 
picturesque corner our illustration suggests, and is thick with 
publishing and printing offices. . The Stationers' School is 


curiously packed away in a half-blind nook of it, and the arms 
of the Medical Society remain above the doorway of the most 

imposing of its houses, while over the way Truth hangs out its 
modern banner of the classic lady with the lamp. Dr. Johnson 
lived and died in Bolt Court. It was here that young Samuel 


Rogers went to show the doctor the early efforts of his Muse. 
It was here that Dr. Johnson is said to have forecast the lighting 
of London by gas. Watching the lamplighter, he observed that 
the flame of one of the oil wicks died out. The lamplighter at 
once re-ascended his ladder, partially lifted the cover, and thrust 
in his torch, when the thick vapour that surrounded the wick 
took fire, and lighted it. " Ah," said the doctor, " one of these 
days the streets of London will be lighted by smoke ! " What 
would his lugubrious majesty have said of the electric lamps } 

It is worth while mentioning, in passing, that at the east corner 
of Peterborough Court, where The Daily Telegraph is now 
published, was the first store opened for the sale of " Hcrtner's 
Eupyrion,** or •* Instantaneous Light Apparatus," the complicated 
and costly predecessor of the Lucifer-match. Cobbett's original 
shop was at 183 Fleet Street, but he removed to Bolt Court. A 
gridiron was engraven on the first page of his Register^ indicative 
of the political martyrdom he was prepared to endure, and he 
had a large one made to put out as a sign over his shop, but he 
never used it. Before Johnson went to Bolt Court he lived at 
No. 7 Johnson Court, from 1765 to 1776 ; but it was in Gough 
Square North where he compiled most of his Dictionary, and lost 
his beloved wife Letty. Some time about the year 1820, Sir 
Walter Scott met Theodore Hook at dinner. Charmed with his 
conversation, impressed with his intellectual power, and sym- 
pathising with the poverty of his worldly means, he recommended 
him to a friend, who was on the eve of starting John Bull, 
Hook was thereupon appointed editor, and the journal was 
commenced at No. 1 1 Johnson's Court. For a long time this 
appointment was worth i^2000 a year, the journal being a 
distinct and financial success from the first issue. John Bull is 
still published, and has a fair circulation among old-fashioned 
Conservatives, and subscribers who are interested not only in 
its politics but in its excellent literary articles -and clerical news. 


Crane Court, of all the courts in Fleet Street, has been the 
most prolfic of Journal'st'c nurseries Rebu'lt after the great 

fire of 1 ondon t on a n n c good spec n ens of old 

brick ork Mr T n b n h Walk and Talk about London," 


says the large front house was built by Sir Christopher Wren, 
and inhabited by Dr. Edward Brown, an eminent physician, 
until 1 7 10, when it was purchased, with the "adjoyning little 
house," by the Royal Society ; the president. Sir Isaac Newton, 
being in favour of the place, because it was " in the middle of the 
town, and out of noise," whereas to-day it is the very heart of 
London's tumultuous bustle. The society removed to Somerset 
House in 1782, and sold the Crane Court building to the Scottish 
Hospital and Corporation, by whom it is still occupied. On the 
site of the first house on the right as you enter Crane Court, 
Dryden Leach, the printer, had his office. He wa^ arrested upon 
suspicion of having printed the famous No. 45 of Wilkes's 
North Briton, The Society of Arts first met in Crane Court. 
Its rooms were over a circulating library. It was in Crane Court 
that Dr. Gavin Knight, of the British Museum (while fitting up a 
house where Concanen had lodged), found the letter in which 
Warburton said Dryden borrowed for want of leisure, and Pope 
for want of time. The Commercial Chronicle was started here, 
and The Traveller had offices in the court until it was merged 
into The Globe, which is now published in the Strand. For some 
years The Globe was a favourite journal of the Liberal party. It 
is now a Conservative organ, edited by Mr. Armstrong, and 
printed on a pink-toned paper. The Globe has a pleasant 
novelty on its front page, a daily essay of a purely literary 
character. It is the work not only of members of the staff, but 
of outsiders. Many excellent contributions to this department 
have come from Mr. Palmer, one of the editorial lieutenants of 
The Sheffield Daily Telegraph, Mr. Joseph Knight, Mr. Thomas 
Purnell (the " Q " who excited the ire of poor Mr. Tom Taylor 
by some fierce attacks upon his plays in The Athenceuni), and Mr. 
Henry Hersee are among its principal writers of dramatic, musical, 
and general criticism. In its active days of Liberal politics, The 
Globe was credited with being under the direct inspiration of 


Lord Palmerston, touching foreign affairs. Mr. Francis Mahony, 
known to fame as " Father Prout," was one of its constant writers, 
and had a pecuniary interest in the profits of the paper. 

The early numbers of Punch were printed in Crane Court. 
Taken as a view of an interesting literary period, the story of 
Punch is concerned with the lives and works of the leading wits, 
humorists, essayists, novelists, and statesmen of the Victorian 
era. It introduced to the world the best compositions of 
Douglas Jcrrold, Tom Hood, Albert Smith, Stirling Coyne, 
Thackeray, Gilbert A'Beckett, and Shirley Brooks. It has made 
Doyle, Leech, Keene, Du Maurier, Bennett, and Tenniel famous. 
During the past fivc-and-thirty years of England's eventful 
history. Punch has been an acknowledged power in the state. 
There were literary as well as political and scientific giants in 
the days when Punch was young — authors and journalists who 
were just stepping out of the common ruck of men to make 
their impressions on this wonderful age of telegraphs and penny 
newspapers. Bulwer was approaching the height of his fame. 
Charles Knight was compiling his Encyclopcedia, Wordsworth 
was laureate. Elizabeth Barrett, Mrs. Hemans, Eliza Cook, and 
Harriet Martineau were proving at once the beauty and strength 
of feminine intellect. Leigh Hunt was gathering honey on 
Parnassus, dreaming much, but never rising to such a pitch cf 
wild imagining as that his son Thornton should one day 
become a member of the editorial staff of a great London 
daily paper published at a penny. Captain Marryat was com- 
mending Peter Simple to the young hearts of Christendom. 
The elder Disraeli was giving to the world his ** Curiosities 
of Literature " ; while sundry poets and authors were pre- 
paring lively incidents for his successor, who has not yet arisen. 
Samuel Warren had just published "Ten Thousand a Year"; 
Lever, '* Charles O'Malley " ; Macaulay, " Lays of Ancient 
Rome" ; Douglas Jerrold was inventing stories beyond that "strip 


of silver sea" which he said was "the best thing between France 
and England" (a sentiment which especially commends itself in 
these latter days to Sir Garnet Wolsctey), and Charles Dickens 
was busy on the first chapters of " The Christmas Carol." Fancy, 
after all, amidst this great hterary light, the darkness of a 
community that did not know " Tiny Tim " ! One almost looks 

back to pity a world that had not joined in the little martyr's 
Christmas toast, " God bless us every one ! " 

To Mark Lemon is entitled the chief credit of founding Puneh ; 
and he was a model editor. At his death he was succeeded by Mr. 
Shirley Brooks, who in his turn was followed by Mr. Tom Taylor. 
On this scholarly journalist and industrious playwright resting 
from his labours, Mr. F. C. Burnand came into power. Mr. 


Burnand is one of the most original humorists of his time. For 
many years he had been "the life and soul '* of Punch, as to-day 
he is its best adviser and the most trenchant interpreter of its 
spirit and purpose. Messrs. Bradbury and Evans, who started 
The Daily News, bought Punch, through Mark Lemon and 
Douglas Jerrold, when it was in danger of collapse. The late Mr. 
Grant, in his book on " The Newspaper Press," says ;^iooo a year 
was in his time the highest salary paid to the editor of a London 
journal. For some years prior to his death Bradbury and Evans 
paid Mark Lemon il^iSOO a year for editing Punch, 


In 187s, the present writer told "The True Story of Punch " 
in London Society. It may be permitted to him, in this 
volume, to repeat a few of the facts therein set forth. The London 
Society narrative ran through eleven numbers of the magazine. 
The abstract shall only occupy a few added pages to this 
reprint from Harper. 

The idea of Punch was the joint work of Henry Mayhcw 
and Mark Lemon. Mr. Last, the printer, says he first exploited a 
proposal for a comic and satirical journal. Mr. Hodder says the 
idea originated with Mr. Mayhew, who mentioned it to him. Mark 
Lemon always spoke of it to mc as the project of himself and 
Mayhew.* It is pretty certain, however, that the first meeting 

* In the London Society papers I published a letter written by Douglas Jerrold to 
Mr. Mills (whose father was the head of a large printing firm), which shows that Mr. 
Mills had mentioned to Jerrold the idea of a comic paper to be called either Punch 
or Air. Punch, Says Jerrold, ** Your letter found me engaged on a prospectus for 
Punch. I sallied out for Bolt Court in the hope of meeting you, but on my way 
called at Dymock's, the news-vendor's, when in taking up The Satirist what was my 
horror to discover our idea anticipated in an advertisement, running thus, Pun- 
chinello on Friday next. ... I mentioned the idea oi Mr. Punch to Dymock, 
who, nothing daunted, seems inclined to break a lance, on his own account, 
with Punchinello ; the speculation may suit him as a bookseller, but would not, 
I think, answer our purpose. Cannot another good name be procured?*' The 


in connection with the Punch of to-day was held some time in 
June 1841, at Mark Lemon's house in Newcastle Street, Strand, 
and that Mr. Last, the printer, and Mr. Henry Mayhew were 
present. Lemon and Mayhew both undertook to communicate 
with writers and artists. Mr. Last mentioned Mr. Ebenezer 
Landells as a good engraver. A few days afterwards a meeting 
was held at the Edinburgh Castle, in the Strand. Douglas 
Jerrold, Henry Mayhew, Stirling Coyne, Landells the engraver, 
and William Newman and Archibald Henning (artists) were 
present for business. Mr. Henry Baylis and Mr. Hodder were 
there as lookers-on. Several authors who did not attend were 
written to for contributions, including Mr. Gilbert A'Beckett, 
H. P. Grattan and W. H. Wills. It was arranged that Mr. 
Henning should be the principal artist, and he was to have 
the assistance of Mr. Newman, Mr. Brine, and Mr. Phillips. 
Mark Lemon had drawn up the prospectus. 

It was at first intended to call the paper The Funny Dog ; 
or, The London Charivari, allusion being made to funny dogs 
with comic talcs. Mark Lemon had actually begun putting 
down the title, writing as far as "The Fun " on the original MS. 
of the prospectus, where " The Fun " is struck out, and Punch 
inserted. The first idea, it must be confessed on all hands, like 
many other clever ideas, was an adaptation from the French. The 
second title {Punch) was agreed upon from the first moment that 
it was suggested ; and was discovered accidentally, like many 
greater inventions. At the Edinburgh Castle meeting there was 

letter is not dated, but reference to Punchittcllo shows it to be 1831 ; and in 1 832 
Mr. Jerrold started Punch in London. Curiously enough Mr. Mills, whom I met in 
1875, ^^^ ^^^ heard of that publication, though a year before its appearance he was 
clearly engaged in negotiations with Jerrold in view of starting a paper to be called 
Punch or Mr. Punch, the idea of the title being his own. It was eight years after- 
wards that Punch was projected and discussed in earnest by Mayhew, Lemon and 
their friends. They had never heard of Mr. Mills's idea, and had forgotten Jerrold's 
Punch in London, They originated and subsequently, with the assistance of Bradbury 
and Evans, founded the existing periodical. 


the customary badinage that brightens the conversation of literary 
men. Somebody suggested that the paper, like a good mixture 
of punch, would be nothing without a fair modicum of lemon ; 
when Henry Mayhew, beaming with delight, exclaimed, "A 
capital idea ! Let us call the paper Punch ! " There is nothing 
new under the sun. Somebody else remembered that Douglas 
Jerrold had once edited a paper called The Penny Punch. Con- 
sternation for five minutes ! The mystic spirit of Copyright cast 
its shadow over the meeting. But on examination it turned out 
to be only the shadow it always has been ; and the title of 
Punch was fearlessly written down. This is Mr. Last's version 
in the main, and it was generally indorsed in a conversation 
I had one summer day, long ago, at the first editor's un- 
ostentatious cottage in his favourite village of Crawley. 

When Bradbury and Evans bought Punchy they retained the 
services of Lemon, Mayhew, Landells, Jerrold, A'Beckett, Leigh, 
Leech, Wills and others. Mark Lemon, when co-editor with 
Henry Mayhew, received, I believe, not more than thirty shillings 
a week. Mr. Newman left the paper for an appointment in 
New York ; and Mr. Henning retired for other reasons. ' Mr. 
Stirling Coyne only wrote occasionally, though his son informs 
me that it was his father who first suggested the title Punchy at 
a meeting of the projectors held at the house of Mr. Joseph 
Allen. According to the best evidence I have been able to lay 
my hands upon, the story of the naming oU Punch is correct as 
I have told it ; while, to my mind, Mr. Mills's claim to be the 
earliest projector of the title is superior to that of any of the 
men who were associated in its production under Mayhew and 
Lemon. Mr. W. H. Wills only remained a short time with the 
paper after its removal to Whitcfriars ; and personal differences, 
about the same time, led to the secession of Mr. Landells and Mr. 
Henry Mayhew. Soon after the change, Mr. A'Beckett seems 
to have had some reason for not continuing his contributions as 


briskly as formerly, and he started a little comic paper of his 
own, called The Squib ; but the coldness thus created between 
himself and Mark Lemon (who was appointed sole editor on 
the retirement of Mr. Henry Mayhew) soon thawed. The 

Squib went off like a squib, and was heard of no more. With 


the end of these early differences, all personal rancour may be 
said to have terminated. Only at long and rare intervals did 
the apple of discord fall among the men who made the world 
laugh and grow better. Indeed, one of the most notable 
features in the history of Punch is the affectionate relation- 
ships which have existed, continuing until the present day, 
between the contributors. Under Mark Lemon's long reign 
the most sincere and lasting friendships were founded. One 
of the pleasantest chapters in Blanchard Jerrold's life of his 
father is that entitled ** Douglas Jerrold at Home ; " and it 
contains an incident characteristic of the hearty spirit of 
geniality which marked the social and domestic gatherings 
of the Punch men : — 

" Dinner, if there be no visitors, will be at four. In the summer, a cold 
quarter of lamb and salad, and a raspberry tart, with a little French wine in 
the tent, and a cigar. Then a short nap — forty winks — uj)on the great sofa 
in the study ; and another long stroll over the lawn, while the young 
members play bowls, and the tea is prepared in the tent. Over the tea-table 
jokes of all kinds, as at dinner. No friend who may happen to drop in now 
will make any difference in the circle. Perhaps the fun may be extended to 
a game of some kind on the lawn. Basting the bear was one evening the 
rule, on which occasion grave editors and contributors * basted ' one another 
to their hearts' content. The crowning effort of this memorable evening was 
a general attempt to go heels over head upon haycocks in the orchard — a 
feat which vanquished the skill of the laughing host, and left a very stout 
and very responsible editor, I remember, upon his head, without power to 
retrieve his natural position. Again, after a dinner party under canvas, the 
hearty host, with his guests, including Mr. Charles Dickens, Mr. Maclise, 
Mr. Macready, and Mr. John Forster, indulged in a most active game of 
leap-frog, the backs being requested to turn in any obtrusive twopenny with 
the real zest of fourteen." 


J*jL'kyALL-Ii: L'.Mrx 

Ihi: hofst 'Ais Dou<jias lerr^^Id; the strut creniieiKan. Mark 
Ix^noiu The little bacd of Punch vvnter< were mostlv 
fond of children. It was Thackeray's delight to -tip" boys- 
When Sidney Blanchard was a little fellow, on one of his school 
holidays Thackeray gave him a dinner at the Garrick, took him 
to the' theatre in the cveninij, and enioved himself immenselv in 
the deiight of the boy. Leech was never happier than in his 
pictures of children and their childish humour. Du Mauricr is 
never more at home than when he is delineating some quaint 
joke in which children are the actors. Tom Hood was one 
of the most simple and gentle-minded of poets. Men who love 
children are invariably good fellows ; and on many festal oc- 
casions, in their own homes and round the Punch table, Mark 
Ixrmon, Jerrold, Hoi ace Mayhew, Leech. Thackeray. Tom 
Hi^xxl, and John Tcnniel were "mere boys, full of the freedom 
and unconventional geniality of youth." 

Among the other Punch artists in the early days, strange to 
say, were Birket Foster, who has made his mark for work the 
opposite of caricature, Alfred Crowquill, John Gilbert (Sir Bois 
Gilbert should have been his knightly title), and Kenny 
Meadows. The last-named gentleman illustrated Jerrolds 
** Punch's Letters to his Son," a series of papers whicli strength- 
ened the popularity of the periodical, and afforded Jerrold a 
capital channel for those quaint sarcastic conceits which fired 
his [Kjlitical and social articles. The Letters in question were 
dedicated to the Lord Chamberlain in a characteristic parable, 
relating how a certain jewel, destined to repose upon the 
palpitating bc)soni of a queen, fell into the wash of a pig, 
Jerrold was both a humorist and a wit. " The Mayor of Hole- 
cum-Corner " and the '* Caudle Lectures " may be specially 
mentioned as examples of his humour. Like Sydney Smith's 
wit, Jerrold's was of the keenest and most transparent character. 
Vou must be on the alert for wit ; it flashes and is gone. "Wit 


gives you a nod in passing ; but with humour you are at home/* 
" Take a walk upon an empty stomach/* said the doctor to 
Sydney Smith. " Upon whose ? *' asked the Dean. That is wit. 
So is Tom Hood's description of a fellow whose height of folly 
constituted his own monument : — 

" A column of fop, 
A lighthouse, without any light a-top." 

So was Sydney Smith's reply to the churchwardens, when they 
wanted a wood pavement round St. Paul's : " Lay your heads 
together, and the thing is done ; " while his remark to a little 
child who was scratching a tortoise, that it was like scratching 
the dome of St. Paul's to please the Dean and Chapter, is a fine 
example of perfect humour. The wit of Jerrold is often equal 
to that of the Dean. A score of stories occur to me, though it is 
too late to add any new ones to the record, for Jerrold's ** wit 
and humour" have been carefully collected and published. 
There are a few good things, however, which will bear repetition. 
" Nature has written * honest man * upon his face," said a person 
trying to make interest for his friend with Jerrold. ** Then 
Nature must have had a very bad pen,'* was the prompt reply. 
Everybody knows how he revenged himself upon a pompous fop, 
who had made himself offensively conspicuous at a club dinner 
where sheep's head was a favourite dish. Pushing his plate 
aside, the stranger exclaimed, ** Well, I say. sheep's head for 
ever ! " ** What egotism ! " remarked Jerrold. This, no doubt, 
led up to a kindred flash of wit on another occasion, at the 
expense of a literary friend of Jerrold's, who had just ordered 
" Sheep's-tail soup, waiter." **Ah!" said Jerrold, looking up, 
and smiling with his great eyes, "extremes meet.*' There 
was an old gentleman who drove a very slow pony in a 
ramshackle gig ; and he was anxious one day to pay Jerrold a 
little special attention. The humorist was on his way to the 



station from his house. "Ah, Mr. Jerrold ! " said the old gentle- 
man ; "shall I give you a lift ?" " No, thank you," said Jerrold ; 
*' I am in a hurry." In the country, on a visit, Jerrold was told, 
among other gossip, of a young man in the neighbourhood, 
named Ure, who had cruelly jilted his sweetheart. ** Ure seems 
to be a base 'un," said Jerrold. At a ball, seeing a very tall 
gentleman walt:5ing with a very short lady, Jerrold .said, " There's 
u mile dancing with a milestone." The author of an epic poem 
entitled "A Descent into Hell" used occasionally to worry Jerrold. 
At last the wit grew irritated with the poet, who, coming 
bounding upon him with the question, " Ah, Jerrold ! have you 
seen my * Descent into Hell ' ? " was answered with quick asperity, 
" No ; I should like to ! " " The Caudle Lectures," said Mark 
Lemon to me, as we were passing an old tavern in Bouverie 
Street, " were partly written in that house." '* Indeed ! " I replied ; 
" Blanchard Jerrold says that some of them were written on a 
bed of sickness." " That may be," said Mark Lemon ; " but 
Jerrold was in very good form, physically, when he wrote the 
best of them, in this very street." I find, pasted upon the flyleaf 
of one of Horace Mayhew's volumes of Punchy the following note 
from a letter written by Jerrold to Dickens in the early days of 
Punch, The extract is a reprint from a newspaper which had 
quoted it, no doubt, from Blanchard Jerrold's Life of his father: — 

Douglas Jerrold's opinion of " Punch."— " /^»«r-*, i believe, holds 
its course. Nevertheless I do not very cordially agree with its new spirit. 
1 am convinced that the world will get tired (at least I hope so) of this 
eternal guffaw at all things. After all, life has something serious in it. It 
cannot all be a comic history of humanity. Some men would, I believe, 
write the Comic Sermon on the Mount. Think of a Comic History of 
England ; the drollery of Alfred ; the fun of Sir Thomas More in the 
Tower ; the farce of his daughter begging the dead head, and clasping it, in 
her coffin, on her bosom. Surely the world will be sick of this blasphemy." 

Horace Mayhevv joined Punch after his brother's retirement, and 
wrote some bright, humorous things about model men, women. 

HE A D'Ql/AR TERS, 1 9 

and children. Mayhew had a gay, sprightly, and genial spirit, 
and for a time he shed a happy light upon the pages of the new 
paper. Presently he was appointed sub-editor ; but it was found 
that the staff did not relish a kind of divided responsibility in 
the editorial department, and it was thought best that Mark 
Lemon should do his own work entirely. Thackeray, Leech and 
Jerrold were men who required very judicious editorial handling, 
and two heads were not better than one in this particular work. 
All the men liked Horace Mayhew, who, though he had not written 
a line for some years prior to his death, often gave a clever and 
useful suggestion. One night, at a festive gathering, he was 
crowned by Mr. George Augustus Sala (a contributor to some 
of the early numbers of Punch), perhaps to commemorate what 
Thackeray once said at Evans's, alluding to Horace Mayhew, 
"Ah ! here comes Colonel Newcome ! " a compliment of which 
Mayhew was not a little proud. The estimation in which he was 
held is best illustrated by a poem written by Shirley Brooks to 
commemorate his fiftieth birthday, July 1868. The lines were 
sung by the writer to a sort of nondescript melody, at a dinner 
given by Mayhew, and have never been published. They may 
be printed now as a not unworthy addition to the charming 
versification of a scholarly and facile journalist and author : — 

Wishing Him Joy. 

A health to our Ponny, whose birthday we keep ; 
The cheer shall be loud, and the cup shall be deep. 
We drain it with old supernaculum trick,* 
And we heartily hail him no end of a Brick. 

Is he perfect ? why no, that is hardly the case ; 
If he were, the Punch table would not be his place. 
You all have your faults — I confess one or two— 
And we love him the better for having a few. 

* Do glass on nail. 

C 2 


But compared to us chaps, he's an angel of light, 
.And a nimbus encircles his caput so white. 
Our jolly old hermit ! the worst we can say 
Is to call him a slave to wine, women, and play. 

Good things in their way, and much better, you know. 
Than going the length that some gentlemen go — 
I won't mention names, but if law had it's right, 
A respectable party were smaller to-night. 

He never did murder, like — never mind whom, 
Nor poisoned relations, like — some in this room ; 
Nor deceived young ladies, like — men whom I see. 
Nor even intrigued with a gosling — like — me. 

No ; black are our bosoms, and red are our hands. 

But a model of virtue our Ponniboy stands ; 

And his basest detractors can only say this. 

That he's fond of the cup, and the card, and the kiss. 

A warm-hearted fellow— a faithful ally. 
Our Bloater's Vice-Regent o'er Punches gone by ; 
He's as true to the flag as the White Friars still. 
As when he did service with Jerrold and Gil. 

His health in a bumper ! " O/^" Ponny— a fib ; 
What's fifty ? A baby. Bring tucker and bib. 
Add twenty ; then ask us again, little boy, 
And till then may your life be all pleasure and joy ! 

" Ponny " was a nickname. Most of the men were known 
to each other by some familiar pseudonym. They call Mr. 
Percival Leigh " Professor " to this day. Mark Lemon was 
*' Uncle Mark," and old Evans " Pater." 

Mr. Coventry Patmore wrote a few trifles in the early numbers 

of Punch, Dr. Kenealy contributed at least one jeii-cT esprit, 

" The King of the Cannibal Islands " in Greek. Laman 

Blanchard and James Hannay were also among the early writers 

I who appeared occasionally. There was a spice of peculiar 

) sadness in Dr. Maginn's brief association with Punch, Nearly 

all his " copy " was sent in from the Fleet Prison, where he was 


detained for debt. Apart from the learned Doctor s well-known 
works, Thackeray has immortalised him in " Pendennis " as 
Captain Shandon. 

It was Leech who introduced Albert Smith to Punch. His 
work first appeared in the second volume, which contained 
his " Physiology of Evening Parties." Was it not this lively 
entertainer who used to tell the characteristic story of a balloon 
party, among whom there was a singularly taciturn stranger. 
He did not speak from the moment of assembling until they 
were in the clouds, when a glass of champagne being handed 
to him, he sipped it, and making a wry face, exclaimed, " Goose- 
berry, by Jove ! " and promptly relapsed again into his previous 
reticence of manner. What scores of racy anecdotes, what 
flashes of wit, must have circulated about the mahogany tree 
in Bouverie Street, where, every Wednesday, for over a quarter 
of a century, the editors of Punch have met their contributors at 
dinner to discuss the cartoon. Not many years ago there were 
regularly sitting round the board, Mark Lemon, Falstaffian in 
figure, genial of aspect ; Shirley Brooks, his lieutenant, a hand- 
some, courtly gentleman, always ready with a bit of pretended 
cynicism ; Thackeray, the great, wise, thoughtful-looking critic 
of the Georges ; Jerrold, with his massive head and eager eyes ; 
Percival Leigh, quiet, gentle, and deferential ; Tenniel, the 
prince of cartoonists ; May hew, distingue in appearance and 
confessedly lazy ; Leech, quick to see a joke ; Tom Taylor, 
politic and capable, full of wise saws and modern instances ; Mr. 
Bradbury senior, affable and pleasant ; and, once in a way, 
Sir Joseph Paxton, one of the few strangers who ever really 
dined with the Punch men. Since the Messrs. Agnew joined 
the partnership they have had seats at the board, where the 
skeleton may indeed be said to sit with the Epicureans of 
Whitcfriars ; for, on the death of a member of the staff, he 
who succeeds to the vacant place cuts his name on the dining- 


table, above that of the former guest, who has rested from his 
labours. They were a united and happy family, almost from 
the first, these writers for Punchy with Mark Lemon standing, 
like father and friend, at their head ; and to his sober influence 
may be attributed the general freedom of the publication from 
anything like objectionable matter, an influence consistently 
taken up by his successors. Mark Lemon's personal influence 
laid in the strong social foundations of the paper. Even 
Thackeray was wont to unbend before the administration of his 
editor in the heyday of his fame. In a lecture which he 
delivered at Birmingham in 1855, on" Men of Humour," he said, 
" I am rejoiced to think that Mark Lemon has maintained his 
post as editor of Punch since its commencement ; for, amid its 
ten thousand pages, there has not been a single line that the 
young may not read, nor a girl have reason to blush at — in 
.strong contrast with the olden times, when fun was not allowed 
them. The comic works of the past years are scaled to our 
wives and daughters. With Pnnch it is not so ; for where its 
editor is, there is decorous wit, and fun without its general 
attendant, coarseness." 

As it was in Thackeray's time so it was to the end. Every 
obituary notice of Mark Lemon included this gentle tribute to 
his memory, though he must often have struggled hard to 
deserve it. He may with trirth be said to have done much in 
the purification of our comic literature. An anecdote, which he 
loved to tell, of the opposition made to his views, related to the 
period when Tom Hood became a contributor to Punch, 
Looking over his letters one morning, he opened an envelope 
inclosing a poem which, the writer said, had been rejected by 
three contemporaries. If not thought available for Punchy he 
begged the editor, whom he knew but slightly, to consign it to 
the waste-paper basket, as the author was '* sick at the sight of 
it." The poem was signed " Tom Hood," and the lines were 


entitled " The Song of the Shirt." The work was altogether 
different from anything that had ever appeared in Punchy and 
was considered so much out of keeping with the spirit of the 
periodical that at the weekly meeting its publication was 
opposed by several members of the staff. Mark Lemon was so 
firmly impressed not only with the beauty of the work, but* with 
its suitability for the paper, that he stood by his first decision, 
and published it. From a letter written by Tom Hood to Mark 
Lemon, it appears that the question of illustrating the poem 
was entertained and discussed. The lines, however, were pub- 
lished without illustration, except that humorous border of 
grotesque figures which made up ''Punch's Procession" on 
December i6th, 1843. " The Song of the Shirt " trebled the sale 
of the paper, and created a profound sensation throughout Great 

It is erroneously supposed that the late Charles Dickens wrote 
regularly for Punch, There is among Mark Lemon's papers 
an article signed Charles Dickens, on the outside of which is 
written "My Sole Contribution to Punchy The idea that 
Dickens was on the staff of Punch originated, no doubt, 
through the intimacy which so long existed between the two 
men. Scarcely a day passed at one period of their lives without 
they met each other at their own houses. They frequently 
spent evenings at home together, or at some place of public 
amusement. They generally devoted one or two evenings in 
the week to what Mark called a London ramble, which was 
frequently an excursion to the East End, " picking up character " 
at minor theatres, circuses, and other places of resort in the 
wildest districts of the wildest parts of the metropolis. Charles 
Dickens, Clarkson Stansfield, the painter, and Mark Lemon 
often made excursions of this kind in company, conversing with 
any persons whom they might care to know, and thus gaining a 
fund of information which was afterwards profitably employed. 


Many passages in Dickens's works, considered far-fetched and 
overdrawn, may be traced to scenes in real life witnessed during 
these London rambles. It was Lemon who planned the ex- 
cursions, as is shown by Dickens's letters. When Dickens 
lived at Tavistock House, Lemon lived close by in Gordon 
Square ; and notes, letters, and reminders of appointments were 
continually passing from one house to the other. 

In later days, owing to Dickens's business severance from 
Bradbury and Evans, and certain family troubles, a coolness rose 
between Lemon and his illustrious neighbour ; but there was a 
revival of something like the old friendship a year or two prior to 
Dickens's death. To-day Punch counts among its newly re- 
cruited staff, the youngest son of Gilbert A'Beckett, author of 
" The Comic History of England," and the eldest son of Shirley 
Brooks, Mr. Burnand's predecessor in the editorial chair. 


At No. lo Crane Court the Illustrated London News was first 
printed. That remarkable journal will be dealt with in due 
course. It was the project of Mr. Herbert Ingram. He was a 
news-agent at Nottingham, and he noticed that whenever the 
local journals introduced a picture into their pages, the sales were 
enormously increased. " How popular a paper full of pictures 
would be ! " was the thought that sunk deep into the enterprising 
mind of the shrewd and observant countryman. He did not rest 
until he had put his idea to the test ; and he died prosperous, and 
with a seat in the House of Commons. 

Mark Lemon was Mr. Ingram's chief adviser in the early days 
of the Illustrated London Ne7vs, acting very much as his private 
secretary. There were few prominent journals with which Mr. 
Lemon had not some association, and looking back, one might 
count up several important properties that slipped through the 


fingers of Messrs. Bradbury and Evans. With the keen instinct 
of business-men they saw the possible great value of The 
London Journal and The Field, They were for a short time 
proprietors of the latter paper. Mr. Lemon edited it for 
them, and he also conducted The London Journal, He sent 
down the circulation of the latter with a reprint of the Waverley 
Novels, and the former did not prosper under his management. 
The Field and The Journal are now among the most valuable 
properties of the day. The London Journal is not a news- 
paper, and it is only mentioned here incidentally as connected 
with the miscellaneous work of the first editor of Punch, who 
was not less industrious than his hard-working successors. 
The editors of Punch have all been dramatists, and they 
have also written excellent ballads both comic and senti- 
mental. Douglas Jerrold fired off one of his shafts at 
Lemon's expense in regard to the title of a volumne "Prose 
and Worse ; " but Lemon wrote several ballads that will 
live, notably "Old Time and I," and "When we were Boys 
together." He was not a man of high educational acquirements, 
but he had the journalistic instinct, and his judgment was held 
in the highest respect by the Punch staff. Fun and Judy are the 
only rivals of the popular satirist which have proved successful. 
Mr. Tom Hood, junior, was the editor of the former, Mr. Charles 
Ross conducts the latter. Fun is Liberal, Judy Conservative. 
They have both drifted from their original owners into the hands 
of Messrs. Dalziel, an eminent firm of engravers. They are 
published in neighbourly proximity to Punch, Funny Folks and 
Moonshine arc the latest additions to the comic press. Funny 
Folks has been an established success for some years under the 
editorship of Mr. William Sawyer, the author of a charming 
volume of verse, entitled "Ten Miles from Town.'* Mr. Proctor, 
who helped to make Funny Folks popular, is now engaged upon 
Moonshine, His style is modelled upon the master, John 


Tcnnicl, and he has given to the world some well conceived 
and eminently artistic cartoons. Mr. Matt. Morgan, a clever 
draughtsman who struck out a new vein in the way of satirical 
caricature, is now drawing "art posters" in Philadelphia for a 
great firm of printers. Mr. Herkomer, who is anxious to 
reform this branch of printing, will be glad to hear that America 
pays special attention to "black-and-white" work for the 
purposes of "bold advertisement." There is a remarkable 
satirical journal published in New York called Puck. The 
conductors have brought to perfection the French system of 
coloured cartoons which has once or twice, in a small way, been 
introduced into London rivalry with Punchy but without success. 
It is not improbable that at no distant day Fleet Street may 
add to its many other periodicals a similar weekly, since the 
public is so pleased with coloured illustrations that it buys up 
the Christmas editions of The Illustrated London News and 
The Graphic long before the numbers can be printed. Two 
safe forecasts of the future would be Punch (or a powerful rival), 
with its cartoons printed in colours ; and a daily illustrated news- 
paper. The Times and The Telegraph have both encouraged 
this latter idea — the one with maps and diagrams, the other with 
a portrait of the murderer Lefroy. 

Fleet Street has seen many and strange developments, 
journalistic and otherwise. There is nothing more remarkable 
in its modern history than the rise and progress of the daily 
and penny press, of which it is the head-quarters. 

( 27 ) 




London and New York Centres of Journalism — Provincial Journals at Head- 
quarters — Notable Country Papers and Editors — Press men in Parliament 
— Mr. Joseph Cowen — Cobbett and Forbes — A Period of Scurrility — Mr. 
Gladstone's theory that the Provincial Press is. better informed than the 
London Press — Country Editors, Past and Present — Election Forecasts — 
The Political Change of 1880— The Gin-and-Water Bohemia of Former 
Days — Lord Palmerston's Defence of Mr. Delane — Political Jibes at 
leading Journals — Lord Bcaconsficld's repudiation of his early connection 
with the Press — A Liberal Journal on the statesmanship of the Tory 
Chief — Mr. and Mrs. Disraeli. 


As the City Hall marks the centre of journalistic activity in 
New York, so may the middle of Fleet Street be taken as the 
point around which, within about half-a-mile, beats and throbs the 
newspaper machinery of London. Within this radius are located 
the offices of nearly all the great journals ; many of them, as in the 
case of The Times, The Tribune, Tlie Herald, The World, of New 
York, being almost next-door neighbours, notably The Telegraph, 
Tlu Standard, The Morning Advertiser, and Tlie Daily News. 
Around them cluster the head-quarters of many famous weeklies, 
and the London offices of great provincial journals, such as The 
Mancliester Examiner and Times, Newcastle Chronicle, Irish 
Times, The Scotsman, Leeds Mercury, Liverpool Courier, Liver- 


pool Daily Post, Dublin Freeman, and many other organs of 
influence and position. 

Several leading provincial journalists have had the advantage 
of the double training that belongs to London specialism and 
the variety of work which is expected from pens engaged on 
country newspapers. Mr. Edward R. Russell, the accomplished 
editor of The Liverpool Daily Post, was born within the sound of 
Bow Bells. He was educated in Yorkshire, and his journalistic 
career may be said to have commenced on The Morning Star, 
He wrote leading articles for that journal, and at the same time 
contributed to The Scotsman, Sheffield Independent, Norfolk News, 
Liverpool Post, and The London Reviezv. During Mr. John 
Morley's editorship of The Morning Star, Mr. Russell frequently 
took charge of the editorial department in his chiefs absence. 
While he was associated with The Star, he received great 
kindness from Mr. Bright, Mr. Forster, Mr. Goschen, Mr. Otway, 
and the late Lord Clarendon. He also enjoyed the personal 
friendship of Mr. Gladstone. This experience has, no doubt, 
proved of great value to Mr. Russell as editor of The Liverpool 
Daily Post, the duties of which he entered upon in 1869. The 
editor of a high-class provincial journal is not the semi- 
anonymous person who rules in the journalistic high places 
of London. He is expected to take part in the public work of 
the town, and he is invariably an active centre in all the political 
movements of his party. Mr. Russell is no exception to this 
general rule, nor is Mr. Thomas Wemyss Reid, editor of The 
Leeds Mercury. Mr. Reid s first connection with the press began 
in the office of The Preston Guardian. In 1867 he was appointed 
London correspondent of The Leeds Mercury, and three years 
later took editorial charge of the paper. The Biograph credits 
Mr. Reid with being the " first among English provincial editors 
to abandon the practice of writing only upon events which had 
already been criticised by the London press ; and The Leeds 


Mercury, from the time of his becoming the editor, dealt with 
public questions as they arose ; its criticisms appearing simul- 
taneously with those of the London journals." Mr. Reid has 
written in the leading magazines, and is the author of a clever 
volume of critical sketches, entitled " Cabinet Portraits." 

Mr. William Black, both as novelist and journalist, began his 
literary life in his native town beyond the Tweed. His earliest 
stories appeared in Tlie Glasgow Herald, At one time he was 
editor of The London Review, a critical journal which, having all 
the good points of the paper it rivalled, died, it may be supposed, 
for lack of its bad ones. The public likes its authors " cut up," 
and the Saturday evidently enjoys the work of mutilation. Mr. 
Samuel Smiles, whose " Self-Help," and kindred works, have made 
his name a household word in all English-speaking countries, was 
early in life editor of The Leeds Times, Mr. Hill, of The Daily 
News, is a native of Lincolnshire, but matriculated in journalism 
on The Nort/tern Whig. During many years, and long after his 
connection with The Times, Mr. Tom Taylor contributed a 
weekly summary of news to a Sunderland paper. Mr. Shirley 
Brooks wrote London letters for The Bristol Mirror and The 
Bath Chronicle. Mr. Hepworth Dixon was editor of a Chelten- 
ham newspaper. 

Of late years journalism has not only been a power of the 
State outside Parliament, but in the House of Commons itself. 
Among the members who were elected at the last general 
election were many gentlemen of the press, some of whom have 
distinguished themselves both in debate and in office. Mr. 
Macliver, proprietor of The Western Daily Press, sits for 
Plymouth ; Mr. Labouchere, of The Daily News and Truth, for 
Northampton ; Mr. E. D. Gray, of The Freeman's Journal, for 
Carlow ; Mr. T. D. Sullivan, of The Nation, represented West- 
meath; Mr. Justin McCarthy, of The Daily News, sits for Longford ; 
Mr. Finigan, for Ennis ; Mr. T. P. O'Connor, for Galway ; Mr. 


O'Donnell, for Dungarvan ; Mr. Arthur Arnold (formerly editor 
of The Echo), for Salford ; Mr. Passmore Edwards, the present 
director of The EchOy for Salisbury ; Mr. John Walter, chief pro- 
prietor of The TinteSy for Berkshire ; Mr. Courtney, a member of 
Tlie Times staff, for Liskeard ; Sir Charles Dilke, proprietor of 
The Athenceum, for Chelsea, and with a seat in the Cabinet; 
while Newcastle-on-Tyne is represented by Mr. Joseph Cowen, 
proprieter of The Newcastle Chronicle^ and Mr. Ashton Dilke, 
proprietor of The Weekly Dispatch. 

One of the most interesting individuals in this band of legisla- 
ting journalists is Mr. Cowen. The London offices of his paper 
are within the Flpet Street radius ; his own personal influence is a 
great factor in Northern politics, and his first speech in the House 
of Commons was a revelation of oratorical power even in that 
assembly of famous talkers. 

The son of a north country father, Joseph Cowen has all 
the best qualities of a typical northerner. Frank, stubborn, 
clear-headed, tender-hearted, slow to wrath, but being roused 
an ugly customer, your north countryman has a special in- 
dividuality which is characteristic of the hon. member for New- 
castle-on-Tyne. His father found the Tyne a shallow stream, 
and to his personal exertions the town chiefly owes the 
fact that it is now an important navigable river. With a 
similar persistence of effort the son took up an insignificant local 
journal, and converted it into the present prosperous and power- 
ful Daily Chronicle. The Cowens for generations have been 
Radical reformers and co-operators in production as well as distri- 
bution. A writer in The Weekly Dispatch recently mentioned that 
the Cowens were in reality the first genuine English co-operators. 
They were members of a society instituted about the middle of 
the 17th century by one Crowley, a manufacturer — the Sir John 
Anvil of Addison's Spectator — whose members were a sort of 
commune, living in common and sharing the fruits of their labour. 


The society was disrupted in 1 8 14, while Mr. Cowen's grand- 
father was alive. In the little town of Mr. Cowen's birth, and 
where he still lives — Blaydon-on-Tyne — is to be found one of the 
oldest and most successful examples of modern co-operation. 
Though little more than a village, Mr. Holyoake, in his " History 
of Co-operation," says next to Rochdale it has the most remark- 
able store in England. From a single house it has grown into a 
street. Its library contains 2000 volumes of new books, and the 
profits were over £16,886 in twelve months three years ago. It 
has an Educational Fund of j^400 a year. In this, in the sports 
and pastimes of the county, in the promotion more particularly of 
local boating-clubs, in town improvements, in Liberal organisa- 
tions, in social reforms of all kinds, Mr. Cowen has taken an 
active part continually, and for many years he has had the advan- 
tage of backing his views with his own and other congenial and 
well-trained pens in the Chronicle. It was no astonishment to the 
people of Newcastle when he rose up in the House of Commons 
and electrified it with his eloquence. They had heard many a 
speech as brilliant and as telling as that which he made on the 
imperial addition to the grand old title of the Queen of England. 
But it made his reputation in the House. It was the talk of clubs 
and drawing-rooms. It set the Liberals thinking what position 
the great Northumbrian Radical would have in the Ministry when 
the Queen should send for Lord Granville, Lord Hartington, Mr. 
Gladstone, Mr. Bright, or some other of the leaders of the divided 
House. The discovery that oratory is not dying out was dwelt 
upon by editorial pens, and Cowen was the hero of the hour. 
The House of Commons was glad, for it has, collectively, a 
pride which is above party. Both sides of politics receive a 
reflected glory in the united possession of great speakers, but the 
independent Radicals and Liberals of Her Majesty's Opposition 
of the time were especially proud of Joseph Cowen, until he turned 
against them on what the Conservatives consider their weak point 


— foreign politics. Yet they ought to have known that Cowen was 
not the man to sell his convictions for a mess of pottage ; they 
ought to have known that the friend of Mazzini and Garibaldi, 
the active ally in purse and sympathy of the Polish leaders and 
the Russian Liberals, the companion of Orsini, Kossuth, Ledru 
Rollin and Louis Blanc was not going to bind his faith to 
the Russian emancipation of Christendom ; they ought to have 
known that Joseph Cowen would not be likely to see in the Czar 
a " divine figure from the north," in whose hands were to be en- 
trusted the interests and honour of England ; and yet, one of the 
most striking passages in his speech against the Liberal Opposi- 
tion's proposal to censure the Beaconsfield Ministry for its defence 
of British interests during the Russo-Turkish war was quoted by 
a leading Radical journal, not for approval, but for condemnation. 
It maybe repeated here as an example of his oratorical method and 
convictions : " I ask English Liberals," said Mr. Cowen, " if they 
have ever seriously considered the political consequences of an Im- 
perial despotism bestriding Europe — reaching from the waters of 
the Neva to those of the Amour — of the head of the Greek Church, 
the Eastern Pope, the master of many legions, having one foot in 
the Baltic, planting another on the Bosphorus. When icebergs 
float into southern latitudes, they freeze the air for miles around. 
Will not this political iceberg, when it descends upon the genial 
shores of the Mediterranean, wither the young shoots of liberty 
that are springing up between the crevices of the worn-out fabrics 
of despotism ? " It was prior to this and to his vote against 
Russia that, asked to attend a political meeting in regard to the 
war, he had written the following reply : " I have not been able 
to join many Liberals in their somewhat rancorous attacks on the 
foreign policy of the ministers. It has not at all times seemed 
to me faultless ; but upon the whole, in my judgment, it has been 
fair and temperate. I willingly give Russia credit for every 
effort made towards improvement, but it surprises me as much as 


it does you to see honest English Liberals throwing up their 
hats and shouting ' Hosannah ! ' in the wake of a conquering and 
corrupt despotism. Dislike of the Turks is intelligible, perhaps, 
not quite justifiable, but how Liberals can forget Siberia and 
Poland, and the sorrows that cluster round their names, is more 
than I can understand." Or any one else who remembers the 
traditions of the party, its professed hopes and aspirations, the 
victories that are inscribed on its banners, and the peoples for 
whom it has drawn the sword. 

Mr. Cowen has always courageously upheld the dignity of 
England. It was nothing new, his opposition to the dictation of 
foreign powers. During the heat of the Franco-German war 
his paper, the Chronicle^ uttered a protest that awoke the 
government of the day to a sense of their duty in regard to 
an insult offered by Prussians to the British flag. Pestered, 
day after day, by the northern journal, ministers found 
themselves compelled to ask the conquering Prussians for 
an explanation. When Mr. Gladstone found he must do 
something he did it, and did it well ; and as usual when 
Prussia saw the English were in earnest Prussia explained 
and apologised. 

Born in July, 183 1, Joseph Cowen, after a course of education 
in a local school, went to the University of Edinburgh, where 
Christopher North was still lecturing, while Lord Macaulay re- 
presented the city in Parliament. Young Cowen, having no 
profession in view, simply sought culture here, and became 
popular both in the University and the city. He was president 
of the University Debating Society. He met Mazzini in the 
northern city, and established a life's friendship with the 
illustrious exile. Sir James Graham and the Post Office officials 
were exposed and denounced by Cowen for tampering with 
Mazzini*s correspondence, and Mazzini addressed his last dying 
words to his friend and defender. Returning home, Cowen 



worked at his father's business, and took an active part in the 
politics, local and imperial, of Newcastle, and is still president of 
the Northern Reform Lea;^ue, a position he has held for twenty 
years. A town councillor he declined to be mayor, but after he 
entered Parliament the citizens obtained a local Act and made 
him an alderman. On the death of his father. Sir Joseph Cowen, 
he was elected to succeed him as the representative of Newcastle 
in the House of Commons, and although he has disappointed 
some mere party men in London by opposing a large section of 
the Liberals in regard to their views of foreign policy, he is none 
the less popular and respected at Newcastle, where they know the 
man and love him ; they know that what a Russophile critic has 
called "Jingoism" in Cowen is simply a strict adherence to his 
old-time Radical ideas — the Radicalism of the men of Cobbett's 
day. It is morally certain that had Cobbett been living Mr. 
Gladstone and his followers would have been mercilessly toma- 
hawked by the editor of The Weekly Register^ which reflection 
recalls the fact that Cobbett was a countryman. He was bom 
at Farnham in Surrey, on the 9th of March, 1762, and there is 
nothing more charming in the range of biography than his own 
epistolary reminiscences of boyhood, which are published in Mr. 
Edward Smith's two volumes narrating his life. His training 
for political warfare was similar to the education of Archibald 
Forbes's for war correspondentship — the hard labour and 
discipline of soldiering. His first literary work had a similar 
motive to that of Mr. Forbes's contribution to The CornhilL 
" The very first thing I ever wrote for the press in my life," says 
Cobbett, "was a little pamphlet, entitled The Soldier's Friend, 
which was written immediately after I quitted the army in 1791 
or early in 1792. I gave it in manuscript to Captain Thomas 
Morrice (the brother of that Captain Morrice who was a great 
companion of the Prince of Wales) ; and by him it was taken to 
Mr. Ridgway, who then lived in King Street, St. James's Square, 


and Mr. Ridgway (the same who now lives in Piccadilly) published 
it." The first number of his daily paper, The Porcupine, was 
published at No. 3, Southampton Street, Strand. Its price was 
sixpence, and its motto "Fear God, honour the King." "The 
newspapers of that day." says Mr. Cobbett's biographer, " were 
largely occupied in throwing dirt at one another, and one column 
was often taken up by a string of paragraphs, containing laboured 
sarcasms directed toward public men or the other public prints." 
Even half a century ago this practice was in full vogue, and glancing 
at the newspaper files of the period, one realises how The Times 
obtained the sobriquet of " The Thunderer," though its genuine 
thunder, it must be admitted, was occasionally very much like the 
tea-board thunder of a " penny gaff" ; for example on July 26th, 
1838, The Times refers to T/ie Morning Post as follows: — 
"This kitchen-stuff journal," "this cockney out of livery," 
"flippant and foolish as its brother blockheads," among whom it is 
described as leading, or proceeding " the entire swine," while The 
Courier is denounced as " that abject slave and unprincipled fool 
of the ministers." The Porcupine was a financial failure, and 
Cobbett's hint of the troubles and anxieties entailed upon the 
conductor of a new daily paper, and more particularly a non- 
paying one, will be keenly appreciated by many who read these 
pages. " He who has been the proprietor of a daily paper for 
only one month, wants no Romish priest to describe to him the 
torments of purgatory." 


It is one of Mr. Gladstone's favourite theories that the pro- 
vincial press is better informed and more powerful than the con- 
temporary journalism of London. There can be no question 
that the country press has been far more constant in its devotion 
to Mr. Gladstone as a statesman than the London papers have. 
An astute writer in The Nation (New York) says Mr. Gladstone's 

I) 2 


preference for the provincial over the London journals lies in the 
fact that he is criticised by the newspapers of London, and 
flattered by the newspapers of the provinces It is interesting 
to And in an American journal articles so well informed abou t 
the inner life of English journalism as those which have appeared 
in The Nation, But I have seen nowhere a true estimate of the 
remarkable change which has taken place in the influence of the 
provincial press since the complete development of telegraphic 
intercourse between the country and the metropolis. A few 
years ago, before the establishment of news associations and 
sj>ecial inteUigence wires, the provincial editor was far more in 
accord with London opinion than now, and for this reason : when 
the great Parliamentary and other sj>eeches of the day came to him, 
he had also before him the editorial opinions of the leading 
London daily journals. The Queen's Speech, the Budget debate* 
and other important political manifestoes, proposals, and dis- 
cussions reached him simultaneously with the editorials thereon 
of the metropolitan press. Before he expressed the opinion of 
his journal to his readers, he was informed and fortified with the 
views of London. Some country editors were content to adopt 
the opinions of certain papers which belonged to their party. 
Others weighed up the points of two or three journals, and 
combined what fitted their opinions with such a line of advocacy 
or denunciation as they deemed most suitable to their con- 
stituency. Thus the metropolitan press exercised a strong in- 
fluence on the pens of country writers, and in those days the 
London papers had a much larger circulation in the provinces 
than they have now. The position of the country editor and 
leader-writer has entirely changed with the concurrent telegrams 
of Reuter, and the use of special London wires. He now re- 
ceives the Queen s Speech almost as soon as the London dailies 
get it. The Budget and all other great debates are telegraphed 
to him as they occur, so that the editorial opinion of the country 


editor is now-a-days a more individual and independent one than 
that of his London contemporary. 

With the proofs of the Parliamentary debates or important 
international news before him, sometimes with only the tele- 
graphic flimsy itself to guide him, he must write his " editorial " 
upon the subject reported. As a rule, the country editor is a 
writing journalist. He has assistants, but he himself contributes 
to his paper its most important editorials. He must write on 
the spur of the moment. There is no club where he can gather 
the prevailing opinion. He cannot go outside his office and tap 
the sentiments of the crowd. He has no colleagues with whom 
to consult No minister is interviewed for him as to the probable 
course of the government under certain circumstances. He has 
no proprietary chief picking up ideas in the lobbies of the 
Commons, or sitting within " the magic portals " of the House 
itself, who will slip out and guide him with a special " tip." * The 
very atmosphere of London seems instinct with the opinion of 
the hour on great questions. In the clubs you hear a hundred 
opinions and comments while great debates arc in progress. 
The telegraphic desks at the Reform, the Carlton, and at many 
minor clubs are centres of opinions as well as news. The 
country editor has none of these advantages. Long after Leeds 
and Manchester and Birmingham have gone to bed London 
clubs and coteries are reading and discussing the nightly tele- 
grams. Moreover, only the principal provincial daily papers 
receive full telegrams of great events, the baldest summaries 
being supplied to the local clubs ; so that the editorial writer, who 
is to influence the local views of the next morning, distinctly 
expresses his own individual opinion. It will, no doubt, smack of 

• There arc a few exceptions to this, which may he noted. Mr. Cowen writes a 
parliamentary letter for his paper. Mr. Russell ofien visits London during exciting 
debates, and telegraphs editorial articles to Liverpool. Other proprietors and editors, 
who have seats in the House, keep up private telegraphic communications with their 
provincial colleagues. 


the party flavour of his pai>er, but it will be free from the sudden 
impulses of London opinion. Sitting in his office alone, with the 
facts to be discussed fresh before him, he has written his article ; 
and whether for good or evil, it is the outcome of an independent 
mind, unbiassed by outside information, unchecked by ministerial 
or other influence ; and in this way, having to exercise its own 
judgment, the provincial press has come to employ high-class 
talent, which has been further improved by having to rely upon 
its own resources, and by the constant exercise of the courage of 
expressing its opinion. It is natural that under these conditions 
the provincial writer should be cautious in his language and con- 
sistent in his views. There is more active political life in the 
country than in London, because politics represent recreation as 
well as duty in provincial towns and cities. Therefore the local 
journal cannot afford to be otherwise than consistent Its policy 
is watched with jealous eyes, and chiefs such as Gladstone on the 
one hand and Salisbury on the other are gods not to be lightly 
criticised. At the same time T/u: Nation is hardly fair when it 
says that the country press merely re-echoes Mr. Gladstones 
opinions ; for touching the Russo-Turkish war there were some 
notable examples of Liberal journals that went over to the other 
side, as T/ie Daily Telegraph did on the question of foreign 

T/ie Stieffield Daily Telegraph, under Mr. W. C. Leng (who 
exposed the Broadhead tyranny, a pen in one hand, a revolver 
in the other), risked an established Liberal position to follow the 
Conservative Premier. It is true that on the whole question, if 
we may judge by the result of the general election, a tremendous 
percentage of country opinion was with Mr. Gladstone. **The 
metropolitan journals prophesied defeat ; they were wrong. 
The provincial journals prophesied success ; they were right. 
Therefore Mr. Gladstone's conclusion is that the provincial 
joucMlHy^derstand and reflect public opinion while the metro- 


politan mistake and mislead it. But Mr. Gladstone confines 
himself to the year 1880; he does not look back to the year 
1874, when the provincial journals prophesied his victory at the 
polls, and he found out they were completely wrong. The fact 
is, the great majority of the provincial journals are Liberal, and 
the wish being father to the thought, they always prophesy a 
Liberal victory." 

This is a plausible explanation, and is admirably put, but it 
does not, I think, truly gauge the situation. In the 1874 election 
there was no particular division of opinion between London and 
the provinces. Mr. Gladstone had made many mistakes, more 
particularly the one of arrogance toward his party and its leaders. 
A feeling had spread that he had neglected to maintain the 
foreign influence and dignity of his country. The Continental 
press had flouted England over and over again with having 
sunk to the position of a third-rate power. The national pride 
was roused with the stigma cast upon Mr. Gladstone's govern- 
ment by the Opposition, that its policy was " peace at any price." 
The Premier's popularity fell ; it went down under the common 
instinct of the people that there was foreign trouble ahead, and 
that neither he nor his cabinet were the persons to cope with it. 
This is not an expression of opinion, it is a matter of fact. Mr. 
Gladstone's majority, in spite of his election promise to reduce 
the income tax, was cast to the winds, and Mr. Disraeli was re- 
turned. But on that occasion there was no marked division of 
opinion between the London and provincial press. At the last 
general election there was. The London journalists were not in 
accord with their country contemporaries either on the question 
at issue or in their forecast of the results. Whether the country 
opinion was the right one as to the imperial policy of Lord 
Beaconsfield is an open question, which it is not necessary 
to discuss here. But there can be no question about the 
Gladstonian victory being far more of a surprise to London than 


it was to the country. The London papers interpreted the 
result by the unanimous expression of the opinion of intellectual 
and moneyed London being against the government. They 
took the views of the city on 'Change and at the banks, and the 
opinions of Mayfair and Clubland at the West, as the opinion of 
London. But it turned out not to be the opinion of voting 
London ; while the sanguine forecasts of the Liberal press of the 
country were the outcome of the discontent of the masses, and 
the general rallying of a great party stimulated by the desire for 
a change of government. Mr. Gladstone may take a good deal 
of credit to himself for the marshalling of these forces. What 
Lord Beacohsfield called a ''pilgrimage of passion" was the 
trumpet call of a great chief. Mr. Gladstone's famous tour of 
oratory did much to realise for the country press their forecast 
of the overthrow of Lord Beaconsfield. 

Mr. Gladstone is often said to be more of a politician than a 
statesman, and there may be a certain amount of diplomacy in 
his flattery of the provincial press. It is provincial England, not 
journalistic London, that makes and unmakes Parliaments, but 
country journalists themselves will not agree with the Premier's 
statement that they are better informed than their brethren of 
the metropolis. London is the centre of the world, the half-way 
house of travellers from America, the Colonies, and often from 
the East on their way to the continent of Europe. It is the 
pivot upon which the financial operations of the world move. 
The head-quarters of the Anglo-Saxon race, it is the capital 
of capitals. All the knowledge of creation past and present 
is collected here. The seat of government, it is the starting- 
point of great events, the receptacle of news and opinions 
from abroad. What the country learns by wire, London learns 
by word of mouth. The ambassadors from distant courts, the 
famous explorer, the diplomatic intriguer, the foreign scientist, 
the soldier from warlike camps, the Queen's messengers going to 


and fro, in London we meet them face to face ; we hear their stories 
from their own lips. Ministers of State, members of Parliament, 
government officials, the special correspondents of great news- 
papers, they are here on the spot ; and official intelligence of 
current movements and changes, of facts and opinions, filter 
from these sources through society and down to the streets, 
and give to the formation of public opinion information which 
cannot possibly reach the country. London is always in a 
position to form a more reliable opinion on foreign politics 
than Edinburgh, Manchester, Glasgow, Dublin, Sheffield, Leeds, 
Liverpool, or Birmingham. It would be easy to build up a 
mountain of reasons to refute Mr. Gladstone's assertion as to 
the superior knowledge of the provincial over the London press, 
and without for a moment disparaging the scholarship and 
power of the country editors, from whose ranks London con- 
tinually recruits its own ; but it is more to the purpose of these 
sketches that we now turn our undivided attention to the 
newspapers of the metropolis. 


Although it has its head-quarters in and around Fleet Street, 
it is hard to say where journalistic London begins and ends. 
Time was when the " writer for the press " did not consider that 
his calling made it necessary for him to " mix in society," to 
belong to the best clubs, and have an establishment of his own 
where the greatest in the land should not be ashamed to visit 
him, but should gladly grace his board and interchange family 
courtesies at his wife's receptions. The Potts of Dickens would 
be as hard to find in the country to-day as the Shandon of 
Thackeray in London. As Bohemia has laid aside its long pipe 
and " two of gin," its sawdust floors and pewter pots, so has 
journalistic London advanced from the tavern corner, the 


sponging-house, and the gutter, to take a foremost place in the 
best society of the time, combining with literary London to 
make an intellectual aristocracy that bids fair to hold, in general 
estimation, a standing equal to that of hereditary rank and 
fortune. Liberal Premiers and Liberal Cabinets are credited 
with showing a more genuine respect for journalism than their 
Conservative opponents, though both have long since ceased 
to keep the London editor where Lord Chesterfield detained 
Dr. Johnson — a patient and despised waiter on greatness 
among the lackeys in the hall. Now and then a London 
journalist unconsciously reveals the old state of things when he 
scoffs at some successful rival who has ventured to speak 
familiarly of a distinguished person, just as Mr. Lawson in 
some past controversy was attacked for mentioning the Premier 
as his " friend Mr. Gladstone." Remembering the proverb that 
hawks do not eat hawks, journalists should not disparage the 
social distinction of their class. A great jofirnal like The Daily 
Telegraph wields as powerful an influence as Mr. Gladstone, and 
to suggest that the director of such a power has not sufficient 
social standing to meet Mr. Gladstone on equal terms, is to 
discount the general status of the journalist, and depreciate the 
very power which the press claims for itself as the Fourth Estate 
of the realm. Besides, who does not remember the rebuke 
administered to Mr. Disraeli by Lord Palmerston when the 
caustic leader of the Tory Opposition suggested, in a Parlia- 
mentary debate, that there were London editors who were 
politically influenced by their reception in " the gilded saloons " 
of the wives of ministers ? 

The sneer was aimed at Mr. Delane, who was constantly 
invited to Lady Palmerston's parties. The House of Commons 
did not see this more quickly than Lord Palmerston did. . The 
fine old Englishman at once denounced the slight attempted to 
to be put upon the integrity of journalism, and amidst the 


cheers of the Commons he paid a splendid tribute to the 
character of Mr. Delane, the editor of The TimeSy concluding 
by saying that it was a source of pride and gratification to 
possess the personal friendship and enjoy the society of a man 
of Mr. Delane's high honour and varied acquirements.* In press 
circles the late Lord Beaconsfield is credited with other personal 
slights of journalists ; and this is strange, seeing how intimately 
his career was at one time bound up with literature and the 
press. He was the " Runnymede " of The Times, and he must 
have contributed many a brilliant article to the papers in his 
early days. But when he was one of the gilded youths of 
London, press men were "poor devils," to be sneered at and 
contemned ; and in his later days the brilliant statesman and 
satirist was not able to shake off the social traditions, axioms, 
and customs of the time when he was a beau of the first water, 
and the centre of a fashionable set that wiped its feet on journals 
and journalists. How bitterly some of the newspapers and 
" newspaper writers " (as Burke called them, when he said, 
"they are for the greater part either unknown or in contempt") 
have avenged their dead and gone brethren, the future historian 
of the Fourth Estate may illustrate by extracts from the present 
press files for the information of a future generation. At the 
same time, the public men of the present day have had " big 
stand-up fights" with the newspapers — notably the encounter 
between Mr. Cobden and Mr. Delane, when Cobden spoiled 
his opening letter by the hackneyed pretence that he was 
not in the habit of reading T/u: Times, but that his attention 
had been called to it ; notably when Mr. John Bright jibed 
at the Beaconsfield ministry for allowing themselves to be 
influenced by the warlike tendencies of a section of their sup- 
porters, and by " the raving lunacy of The Pall Mall Gazette, 
and, if the House would pardon the alliteration, the delirium 
tremens of The Daily TelegraplL' 



Though Lord Beaconsfield, for some curious reason, ignored 
his early connection with the press, and wished to have it 
understood that he had not written in newspapers for money, 
press men and literary toilers are proud of the man who 
raised himself from the desk to the peerage of intellect and 
aristocracy — his first stepping-stones to fame being his literary 
work. No career more remarkable than that of Benjamin Disraeli 
is to be found in biographic history. He began life as an articled 
clerk to the firm of Swain, Stevens, Maples, Pearse & Hunt, of 
No. 6, Frederick's Place, Old Jewry. They were friends of his 
father, whom they advised to let the young clerk study for the 
Bar, this advice being founded upon the evidence he gave of 
ability and earnestness in the work committed to his charge. 
The advice was not acted upon. It may be that the boy's 
father could not afford to pay the fees of law crammers and the 
sum necessary to enter at the Temple. But literary work freed 
the young fellow from the drudgery of conveyancing, and he 
was writing novels and social sketches when his great rival 
Gladstone was a youth studying classics at Oxford. It is 
hardly possible for a writer to find a more romantic theme than 
the history of Benjamin Disraeli from this time to the moment 
when in dying he half rose from his bed — the last movement 
of his life being just the action that men noticed in him 
when he rose in Parliament to make an important speech. 
In his coffin, it is said, his appearance was little changed, except 
that there was a faint smile about his mouth, and he looked 
younger than his years. The characteristic lock that hung upon 
his brow pathetically suggested the days of his youth. The 
familiar face in life had a strange fascination for any person of 
an imaginative turn of mind ; and the most unobservant of 
mortals once seeing it could hardly forget it. Punch drew that 


face in many aspects, but in none so truthfully as the sphinx in 
Mr. Tenniel's adaptation of Poynter s famous picture. His face 
was a mask, but a mask that suggested a great power behind 
it. There was also something sad about the mask's eyes, 
as if it had dark sorrowful secrets. Nobody can doubt 


that the famous statesman had cultivated the power of con- 
cealing his emotions ; that the expressionless character of his 
face was the result of self-repression ; it was part of his tactics 
of warfare to have no " tell-tale " lights and shadows of feeling 
in his countenance. He had no moustache as Napoleon HI. 
had to hide indications of emotion in the mouth — Napoleon 
prided himself upon the inscrutability of his face at trying 
and great moments — but the keenest judges of character have 
failed in their efforts to interpret Disraeli's thoughts in his face 
when " behind the mask " the heart and soul of the man must 
have been passionately moved. It was not a handsome face 
in the general acceptation of beauty ; but it was very remarkable, 
and the brow was certainly poetical in its breadth toward what 
phrenologists call the regions of '* ideality." That he was a 
man of strong emotions and of an ardent, loving nature none can 
doubt : his domestic life proved this, his personal devotion to the 
Queen belonged partly to his poetic nature ; but his pathetic 
request, " Let him come to me gradually," when he learned at last 
that his friend, Lord Rowton, had arrived, speaks volumes for 
his tenderness and his capacity for affectionate friendship. 

Among the many great speeches of Mr. Disraeli, America will 
not forget that, of all the orations delivered upon the death 
of Abraham Lincoln, it has been generally admitted none 
equalled in its touching eloquence that which Mr. Disraeli 
delivered to the British House of Commons. Says one of the 
current historians of the time : " It brought tears into the eyes of 
men to whom before that moment the President of the United 
States had been a mere abstraction." Mr. T. Wemyss Reid, a 


Liberal of the Liberals, in one of his " Cabinet Portraits/' defends 
Mr. Disraeli from the charge of being " no statesman," and he takes 
in illustration of his point on the contrary the question of the 
American war. " Upon that topic," says Mr. Reid, " we were 
nearly all in the wrong — all but Mr. Disraeli. Lord Palmerston 
— clever, experienced, worldly-wise old man as he was — 
would have gone in unhesitatingly for a recognition of the 
Southern States. Earl Russell declared that we saw in the 
New World that which we had so often seen in the Old — a 
war on the one side for empire, and on the other for in- 
dependence. Mr. Gladstone was bursting with zeal — even when 
official restraints ought to have tied his tongue — on behalf of 
Mr. Davis and the * nation ' he had made. Mr. Disraeli was in 
Opposition, and therefore at liberty to act entirely in accordance 
with his own sympathies ; his party were enthusiastic adherents 
of the South. It would have seemed to an ordinarily acute per- 
son that the safest and most profitable game he could possibly 
have played would have been that of the Confederacy. But Mr. 
Disraeli himself knew better. A cool judgment and clear fore- 
sight had led him to see the inevitable end." Mr. Reid goes on 
to show how Mr. Disraeli was superior to his own party in this, 
and far in advance of the Liberals, and he declares that had those 
who are put forward as his superiors in statesmanship possessed 
his sagacity, we should never have had an " American difficulty " ; 
while, at the same time, he credits Mr. Disraeli with doing much 
to save England from " immeasurable evils." This is the 
opinion of a Liberal writer and a politician of no small merit, 
a shrewd Scotchman, and the trusted literary chief of the 
Baineses of Leeds. The action of a certain section of the English 
people during the war was long the source of considerable irrita- 
tion between the two peoples. The bitter memories are dying 
out now. It was a Liberal Government that suffered the build- 
ing of the Alabama : it was a Liberal Government that covered 


Itself with honour in its settlement of the Alabama claims ; but 
it is a fact, which has been greatly ignored by American critics of 
Benjamin Disraeli, that his influence, in whatever direction 
it was used, was in the interest of the North and the Union, 
and that his tribute to Abraham Lincoln is a classic in modern 

No more interesting chapter could be added to Isaac D'Israeli*s 
gossip about the wives of great men than an account of his own 
son's domestic happiness and the good influence of his wife upon 
his fortunes and career. The literary and studious father held 
that few great men have flourished, who, were they candid, would 
not acknowledge the vast advantages they have experienced in 
the earlier years of their career from the spirit and sympathy of 
women. From all one has heard of the late Viscountess 
she might come into the famous list of " unlettered wives," who 
have done so much to foster and strengthen the genius of their 
husbands. ** The Professor of the Breakfast-table " is eloquent 
upon this theme. " Many a blessed woman," he says, " who dies 
unsung and unremembered, has given out more of the real vital 
heat that keeps life in human souls, without a spark flitting 
through her humble chimney to tell the world about it, than 
would set a dozen theories smoking, or a hundred odes simmer- 
ing in the houses of so many men of genius." Mrs. Disraeli had 
money. It was her fortune which first enabled her husband 
to fight his way into the House of Commons, and kept him 
free from the worries of " working to live." She was a simple- 
minded, honest, earnest woman. She loved her husband 
and was proud of him. He responded to her affection with a 
happy personal devotion. She was not what North-of-England 
people call " a fine lady ; " she was not even " a woman of society." 
Every night, whatever the hour at which the House of Commons 
adjourned, she sat up for her husband. The Queen made a 
friend of her, and no one knew better than her Majesty the 


t. .. 

peaceful, happy life which her illustrious subject led at home. 
Some clever journalistic pen, in a notice of her death, wrote : " It 
was a pretty sight, that of the remorseless parliamentary gladia- 
tor, who neither gave quarter nor asked it, who fought with 
venomed weapons, although he struck fair, and shot barbed darts, 
which clung and rankled in the wounds — it was a pretty sight to 
see him in the sunshine of domestic life, anticipating the wishes 
of his wife with feminine tenderness of consideration, and receiv- 
ing her ministering with the evident enjoyment which is the most 
delicate flattery of all. The secret of the spell she held him by 
was a simple one. She loved him with her whole heart and soul, 
she believed in him above all other men ; and he appreciated at 
its real worth that single-minded, self-sacrificing devotion." In 
his latter days, after her death, he always did everything he could 
to get leisure to wander about the grounds at Hughenden — to 
roam in the paths he and she had walked together; and it 
was no cynical remark that which he made on his defeat at the 
last election : " Ah, well, I shall be able for once to see the roses 
bud and bloom at Hughenden." 

( 40 ) 



Merely Chatting about a Great Subject— First Number of The Daily News — 
Charles Dickens in the Editorial Chair — The Paper disagrees with Cobden 
and Bright — Early Struggles — The American War— Harriet Martineau 
and Queen Victoria — Mr. Robinson's new Plan of War- Correspondence — 
The Staff of The Daily News — Career of Mr. Forbes — Famous Feats of 
Writing and Telegraphy — "King of Correspondents" — Mr. Justin 
McCarthy and the Irish Agitation. 

As these papers make no pretence to a systematic history of 
journalism, the writer proposes to himself rather to give promi- 
nence to new and authorized facts in connection with the great 
newspapers of the time than to set out the ordinary and oft- 
repeated histories which have become familiar. In selecting his 
subjects, he lays aside the customary marshalling of dates of 
priority, and does not consider it necessary to parade the pre- 
cedence which has been given to journals according to age, 
circulation, or position. He is anxious that it shall be con- 
sidered he is merely chatting with his readers about a great sub- 
ject, while neither he nor they have any more time to spare 
than is necessary for a gossip, which he hopes will, however, 
be both pleasant and instructive. 

Among the stories of the projection and establishment of Lon- 
don papers, that of The Daily News has never been completely told. 
The first number is dated January' 21, 1846. It is curious to see 


a daily paper without any telegrams. It was thought a great 
thing to have received from Paris on the 21st of January advices 
as late as the 19th. A day or two previous to the issue of the 
first Daily News a specimen-number was written, printed, and 
published in due form to test the efficiency of the organisa- 
tion and machinery. Notwithstanding this, it appears from 
the good-humoured protest of " A Subscriber," in the second 
number, that the arrangements were by no means perfect. The 
letter is interesting since it is known that Mr. Charles Dickens 
wrote it, as well as the editorial rejoinder by which it was 

" To the Editor of the * Daily News ' : 

" Sir, — Will you excuse my c illinj^ your attention to a variety of typo- 
graphical errors in your first number.'* Several letters are standing on their 
heads, and several others seem to have gone out of town ; while others, like 
people who are drawn for the militia, appear by deputy, and are sometimes 
very oddly represented. I have an interest in the subject, as I intend to be, 

if you will allow me, 

"Your Constant Reader. 
"21st January J 1846." 

"We can assure our good-humoured correspondent that we are quite 
conscious of the errors he does us the favour to point out so leniently. The 
very many inaccuracies and omissions in our first impression are attributable 
to the disadvantageous circumstances attending the production of a first 
number. They will not occur, we trust, in any other. — Ed. * Daily 

Dickens, during the six months of his editorship, was active in 
engaging contributors right and left. Money flowed from the 
proprietary coffers " like water." A railway editor was engaged 
at two thousand pounds a year. There were foreign, colonial, 
and heaven knows what editors besides. Bradbury and Evans 
supplied the capital. Ultimately Mr. C. W. Dilke (grandfather 
of the present Sir Charles, and a man of great energy), on be- 
coming manager, reduced things to order, though, if it was ujXDn 


his recommendation that the price of the paper was lowered to 
2\d,, his wits must have been asleep for once. In those days 
the heavy paper and advertisement duties made it impossible 
for a journal to be sold profitably under 5^. per copy. The 
object of Tlie Daily News for some time seemed to be to con- 
stitute itself a popular Times, The leading journal was not then 
the champion of freedom it is now. 

The Daily News espoused the cause of the nationalities of 
Italy and Hungary, as of the Parliamentary reformers at home. 
In this work, however, it quarrelled with Messrs. Cobden and 
Bright, whose "peace-at-any-price" doctrines were not to its taste. 
Mr. Bright openly sneered at The Daily News, and has never 
been a very cordial friend to it. Such contributors as Douglas 
Jerrold, Harriet Martineau, Dr. Lardner (who was the corre- 
spondent in Paris), and John Forster, gave the paper a high 
literary standing. Mr. Forster made an excellent editor, but 
the forces against him were too strong for him to prove success- 
ful. Mr. Knight Hunt, a busy, energetic little doctor, who wrote 
a history of the newspaper press, worried himself to death in 
the effort to bring the paper to live upon a farthing a day 
without actual extinction. He was succeeded by a worthy 
Scotchman — a tall, gray-haired, canny gentleman, who was as 
deaf as a post, and into whose ear Lord Brougham said it was 
impossible, though he often tried, to pour a confidential com- 
munication. For this reason poor Weir was excluded from 
the political clubs, greatly to his annoyance. There was a 
chorus of praise from the press when he died, despite the 
hostility which had reigned between them. No one was a 
better "hater" than old Weir. The Times of September 17, 
1858, had the following paragraph : "'The late William Weir.' 
Under this title The Daily News publishes a well-earned tribute 
to the memory of its late editor — a gentleman to whom the 
public is greatly indebted for the able and honest conduct of 

E 2 


llwit journal We have often differed with it, but never without 
jtiiKViX" i\\^|>cct for the ability and the gentlemanly spirit in 
which it was conducted — a spirit which made it, the youngest of 
\Hir vviUcmj^oraries, a worthy representative of the English 
jMX\v'<** Harriet Martineau discussed all sorts of topics in The 
i\HkY Xt^vs with the utmost freedom. She wrote three articles 
,^ wtH^k by aj^reement, and this was continued long after she had 
ixiiixnl to her Westmoreland home. She delighted in her work, 
aiul iHMUributed greatly to the literary reputation of the papei. 
Uor stylo was always clear and forcible, and her views were 
cnluix^nl and humane. One story which she was fond of telling 
artcr she had ceased -to write (only a few years before her 
UoathX was that she once enabled the paper to make an announce- 
ment of the first importance, viz. the sailing of the fleet for the 
liiOtio during the Crimean war. She was on visiting terms 
with a lady who was anxious to get an appointment on one 
of the ships for her son, and having claims upon her Majesty, 
she had asked the royal interposition. The Queen called upon 
her one morning to tell her " to set her mind at rest," for the 
fliH^t war. '* going to the Baltic," and her boy "should go with 
Jt»" In the afternoon Miss Martineau called to see her friend, 
and was told of the circumstances. With true journalistic 
aptness, she drove back to T/ie Daily News office with her news, 
and the paper had all the credit of having exclusively received 
an official notification. In 1869 Mr. J. R. Robinson, the 
manager, persuaded Miss Martineau to let him collect from 
The Daily News the various biographic sketches which she had 
written for the paper. They were published, and secured a large 
sale. She was delighted, as she fancied the world had forgotten 
her. The praises which the critics lavished on the essays gave 
her especial pleasure. The profits amounted to some hundreds 
of pounds, and were to her the least part of the gratification 
derived from the publication of the work. 



Mr. Thomas Walker, who was for some time sub-editor of the 
paper, has a claim to the respect of the American people, for it 
was during his editor^jhip that The Daily Ntnvs fought the 
cause of the North. In 1855 the present manager of the 
paper, Mr. J. R. Robinson, joined Tfte Daily Neivs, taking the 
post of editor of its evening edition, called T/ie Express, 

which, under his direction, was considered among journalists to be 
the best evening pajjer for news and general make-up that had 
ever been published, Mr. Robinson was an enthusiastic sup- 
porter of the North. For many years he had been the London 
correspondent of The Chicago Tribune ^nd The Boston Adi<erttser. 
The Southern sympathies of the wealthy classes tended to injnrc 
the iiaper, and certain large auctioneers, publishers and other 


advertisers declared they would have nothing to do with " such a 
rascally Yankee print." It was even reported that the journal 
had been subsidised by the North. A facetious gossip went 
about vowing he had seen a cart-load of greenbacks at Tlie 
Daily News door. The proprietors at that time were two gen- 
tlemen unknown to fame. They bore up under the external 
pressure for some time, but at length grew nervous, and one of 
them insisted that the paper should " rat." The story goes that 
one day, when the fortunes of the North were at their darkest, 
and Mr. Roebuck had postponed in Parliament a motion for the 
recognition of the South, simply because, as he said, " events 
would have answered it " before the week had passed, Robinson 
and his co-editor were confronted with the suggestion that the 
policy of the papers must be altered. Both vowed they would 
stand fast so far as each was concerned, and " go out into the 
wilderness " together if need be ; but before a week had passed 
events had settled the. question, though not in the manner 
indicated by Mr. Roebuck. 

In 1868 it was decided to take the revolutionary step of 
transforming The Daily News into a penny paper. A few 
gentlemen, including Mr. S. Morley, M.P., Mr. H. Labouchere, 
M.P., Sir Charles Reed, M.P. and Mr. H. Oppenheim, bought 
the property, and the experiment began. Mr. Walker, who will 
be remembered with esteem by Mr. Adams and other American 
friends, obtained the comparative sinecure of the editorship of 
The London Gazette, which he still hoids ; and Mr. Frank H. Hill, 
who, while editing The Northern Whig at Belfast, had contri- 
buted much valuable matter on the American question to The 
Daily News, and had subsequently joined it as assistant editor, 
became editor-in-chief An accomplished and scholarly writer, 
Mr. Hill has an incisive and telling style, which is aided by a 
broad and extensive knowledge of the world. One of his 
colleagues, a man of universally acknowledged power, in reply- 


ing to a letter addressed to him for some notes touching the 
journalistic career of Mr. Hill, whose acquaintance the writer had 
not made, says : " You are aware, of course, that Mr. Hill is the 
author of that collection of masterly and, I think, unrivalled 
personal 'Political Portraits.' He is also, there can be no doubt, 
the author of the ' Political Adventures of Lord Beacon sfie Id," 

which appeared in The Fortnightly Revieiv. He is one of the 
most accomplished scholars I know, and his reading, both in 
solid and light literature, is very varied. He is a wonderfully 
good talker, with a strong tinge of the sarcastic in his manner 
and his way of looking at things and men. I do not know any 
one who has a happier gift of touclling off a character in two or 
three phrases, and seeming to get to its very depths, and illus- 


trate its weak points as if by a flash. The number of happy 
things he has said about people in public life is surprising. At 
the same time, like many or most persons who have a liking for 
the satirical mood, he is a man of singularly kind nature, about 
whom one hears nothing that is not to his credit." Mr. Hill, 
before he came to the editorial chair of The Daily News, was a 
leader-writer on Tlie Saturday Review, 

For two years, however, the new penny paper was carried 
on at a loss. In 1870 there came a change. "You and Bis- 
marck," said the late Shirley Brooks to Mr. Robinson, " are the 
only persons who have gained by this war ; you deserved it.'* 
Awaiting his opportunity, the far-seeing manager had seized 
this war as the one to be used. His first theory was to sub- 
stitute at every point the electric telegraph for the post. " You 
mean," said the correspondents to him, "that we are to tele- 
graph bits of our letters." " No." was the reply ; " you arc to 
telegraph the whole of them." Given the right men, this was the 
way to succeed. Money was spent so freely that the coffers must 
have become very low before the tide turned. A happy alliance 
was contracted with The New York Tribune, the two papers 
exchanging each other's dispatches. Mr. Smalley is held in 
great respect by his former associate, who declares him to be " a 
very Napoleon of journalism." 

It was said of my illustrious predecessor of The Gentleman's 
Magazine, Mr. Cave, whose publication I ventured a few years 
ago to reconstruct on modern lines, that he never thought of any- 
thing else besides his magazine; that if he "looked out of window" 
it was to seek for some new means of increasing its excellence 
and advancing its interests. Those who knew him best would, I 
fancy, be inclined to say something similar of Mr. Robinson in 
regard to T/ie Daily News, The life and soul of its enterprise, 
he is the backbone of its business arrangements. He not only 
has the wit to conceive new journalistic methods, but the ability 

* THE DA IL y NE WS: 57 

to carry them out. Standing by the policy of the paper during 
the American war, almost to the verge of despair, in later days 
he backed his idea of telegraphic war-letters to **the last shot 
in the locker." A thoughtful and earnest man, continually 
scheming for the advancement of his paper, he seems never to 
have been wrong in shaping its policy, and his friends are glad 
to know that success means to him something more than fame, 
since he holds a substantial share in the property. A singularly 
modest man, Mr. Robinson, who knows good work when he 
sees it, and is not backward in recognising it, both in words and 
money, is very popular with The Daily Neivs staff. Similarly it 
may also be said that he has the entire confidence of his co- 
proprietors, who have had ample reason to endorse his managerial 
judgment in regard to all the great undertakings of "the largest 
circulated Liberal paper.'* 

The remarkable war-telegrams in The Daily News rapidly 
changed its fortunes. In one week the circulation increased 
from 50,000 to 150,000, and everywhere abroad Tlie Daily 
News dispatches were recognised as the best. Collected after- 
wards into two volumes, they still form the most complete 
record of the actual war operations. As indicating the influence 
of the paper, it may be said that in the midst of the war the 
directors suggested the collection of a fund for the relief of the 
peasants in the occupied districts of France. So rapidly was this 
taken up that in a few weeks ;£^27,500 were forwarded in various 
sums to the office. This represented a tremendous addition to 
Mr. Robinson's labours, as he was treasurer, committee and 
secretary all in one. Collections were made at Westminster 
Abbey, St. Paul's Cathedral, and in many churches and chapels 
throughout the land. 

The number of correspondents on T/ie Daily News staff 
during the recent wars was seventeen. Mr. Archibald Forbes 
was the chief, and his brilliant adventures and successes have 



surrounded his name with what one may be for^ven for speaking 
of as a halo of journalistic romance. While the stage fights hard 
and bitterly against recruits who have not been literally born in 
the profession, the press has open arms for talent, whatever its 
training. The Bar, the Church, the Laboratory, the Barracks ; 
no matter where the pen has tried its earliest flights, the press 

has no prejudices. Its first great test is work, its next integrity. 
Mr. Archibald Forbes, though he commenced life as a student of 
the University of Aberdeen, was practically trained and educated 
in the harder school of a barracks. We owe it probably to his 
love of adventure that he ran away from college and enlisted in 
the Royal Dragoons, in which service he may be said to have 
fitted himself for the great work of his manhood. Says a writer 
who sketched his biography not long since in Tlie World, " His 


career is a remarkable example of the French proverb, Chasse% le 
uaturel, il revient au galop. As a scholar, he burned to be a 
dragoon ; as a dragoon, he could not forget his literary tastes." 
He wrote an essay on a military subject, and sent it to T/ie 
CornhilL It is often thought by young beginners in the very 
hard field of literature that "influence" is the chief secret of the 
editorial consideration of manuscripts sent to them by persons 
who have yet to make a name. They think they have only to 
obtain a good personal introduction to the director of a famous 
publication, for their essays to be accepted and paid for at that 
high rate which is supposed to be the reward of the fortunate 
possessors of the key to editorial patronage. Mr. Forbes was 
a private soldier when he sent his contribution to The Corn/nil^ 
and he invoked no other influence than that of his work. The 
Cornhill accepted his manuscript, and this led to his giving up 
the sword for the pen. He became editor of The London Scots- 
man, and, after a time, correspondent (or t\iQ Morning Advertiser 
in the early days of the Franco-German war. ** His letters 
thereon,'* says The World's biograph, " attracted the notice of 
Mr. J. R. Robinson, the manager of The Daily News, who, with 
the quick eye of an accomplished journalist, recognised a fresh 
and strong hand. Accident soon brought him and his future 
correspondent together. Returning from Metz to reassume the 
editorship of The London Scotsman, Mr. Forbes, being possessed 
of much accurate information respecting the position of the con- 
tending armies, endeavoured to * place * a letter on the subject in 
a leading journal. The communication was discouraged, and he 
stood in Fleet Street hesitating which of the three daily news- 
papers in the immediate neighbourhood to offer his * copy ' to. 
He decided, by tossing up, on The Daily Netvs, and on the 
following morning made his first appearance in the columns of the 
journal with which he has since been so intimately associated." 
The next day he called at the office of The Daily News, and. 


Forbes come through the wire with a sort of photographic 
reflection of the situation described, and have rarely required more 
than the ordinary editing of telegraphic dispatches. His word- 
picture of Plevna, and his famous ride during the Zulu war will 
go down to history among the romantic events of the heroic 
defence of the Turkish stronghold, and the smaller, but not 
unimportant one of the fall of Ulundi. 

Mr. Forbes looks his character. Stalwart in build, strong- 
limbed, square-headed, he has the bearing of a soldier, with a 
strong development of those perceptive and receptive faculties 
which make journalists. 

Mr. Labouchere's " Diary of a Besieged Resident in Paris " is 
among the brightest and cleverest of newspaper correspondence. 
Other distinguished " war pens " on The Daily News were Messrs. 
J. A. MacGahan, F. D. Millet, E. Pease, E. O'Donovan, T. H. 
Skinner, and V. Julius. Among the eminent men who have 
contributed to The Daily News may be mentioned Sir Joseph 
Arnold, afterward judge at Bombay ; Professor T. Spencer 
Baynes ; Mr. E. Pigott, Examiner of Plays in the Lord 
Chamberlain's department ; Drs. Warren, Mackay, and West- 
land Marston ; Professor Nichol ; and Mr. William Black (the 
novelist), John Hollingshead, J. N. Lockyer, A. Lang, and Mr. 
E. L. Godkin, the latter gentleman known in New York as the 
accomplished editor of The Natioiiy which has been not inaptly 
called "an improved Saturday Review!' Mr. Moy Thomas, a 
writer of rare acumen and large knowledge of books, plays and 
actors, is the dramatic critic ; and Mr. Justin McCarthy, an 
industrious journalist and author, and a writer of great and varied 
gifts, is still properly credited with a good deal of the incisive 
editorial matter in The Daily News. Novelist, journalist, historian, 
lecturer, member of Parliament, Mr. McCarthy is a representative 
man in all the branches of literature and politics, which he has 
explored with courage and success. Some of his friends lament 


that he has been drawn into the whirlpool of Irish agitation ; but 
despite his thirty years' residence in England, he is Irish, " native 
and to the manner born " \ and, master of his own destiny, it is 

not for friends nor admirers to limit or select the field of his 
labours, or the political and personal objects of his sympathies. 
Journalistic London has reason to be proud of counting among 
its ranlis men whose talents command alike the respect of friends 
and foes. 




Inside the Office — Mr. John C. Macdonald— The Composing Room — Kitchen 
and Cloak Rooms — Reporting Debates through the Telephone—The Type- 
setting Machine — Origin of The Times — The "Walter" Press — Chiefs of 
the Staflf— Mr. Delane and his successor, Mr. Chenery. 


The Times has often been called the Jupiter of the Press. 
As emblematic of its power, the title is well chosen. Among all 
the newspapers of the world, none has wielded so wide and 
extensive an influence as this great English paper. 

If buildings have a physiognomical character of their own, 
those of The Times are peculiarly representative. Face to face 
with The Times oflice, you confront a sturdy, immoveable 
institution. Enter and make a tour of the premises, and you are 
impressed with the air of order and repose that pervades every 
department. There is no hurry in The Times oflice. Even 
when the last " forms " go down to press, they go in a calm 
systematic fashion. No rushing, no calling, no noisy hammering, 
accompanies the operation. Now and then something nearly 
approaching a fuss attends the insertion of the weather chart or 
a war map into the latest pages, but this is of rare occurrence. 
It is as if the entire establishment, with its employes, belonged 
to a machine manipulated by unseen hands. 

Another source of surprise is that there appear to be but few 


people in the place. You might reasonably expect to meet an 
army of compositors, stereotypera, machinists, clerks, reporters. 

messengers ; you only see a few persons going about their 
work with quiet unobtrusivcness, though The Times does employ 
quite an army of men. They are disciplined, however, as 

66 JO L r::a lis tic losdos 

carefully as an army should be, and the\- go about as if they 
were always conscious of the responsibility of ser\'ing ** The 
Thunderer." Just as the artists and " supemumaries " at the 
Lyceum Theatre seem to move as if under the constant ej'e 
of the presiding genius of that establishment, so the persons 
employed in TIu Times office always appear to feel that they 
are in an exceptional and distinguished ser\'ice. 

This sense of order and regularit>' in Printing-house Square is 
not disturbed, even though the proprietors invariably occupy the 
van of mechanical progress in r^ard to the production of a 
newspaper. The first to use machine presses, the first to drive 
them by steam, the first to introduce type-setters, the first to 
adopt the telephone and the electric light, there is no proposed 
change or improvement in connection with their business that, 
seeming to them worthy of consideration, the proprietors of TIu 
Times have not tested, and adopted when experience has 
approved the change. Mr. John C. Macdonald, a capable 
gentleman, with the natural shrewdness and perseverance ol 
his nationality, has for many years been the practical manager 
of the paper. Most of the changes and improvements have 
been carried out under his supervision ; many of them have been 
inaugurated by him. With his permission, little as this is to 
.say, it would not have been said, for it is hard to ttll which 
most predominates in Mr. Macdonald's character, the wisdom 
of practical experience or the unostentation of native modesty. 

A short time since, when I accompanied my friend, Mr. 
Ridley, to make a pictorial sketch of Printing-house Square 
and the old doorway with the testimonial inscription over 
it, the square, the doorway, the whole place, had been trans- 
formed. The Times offices had been rebuilt. The change was 
not in any way typical of the PhcL-nix rising from the ashes 
of a conflagration (as at Chicago, where the \^xy site of its 
Times office was lost in the flames), for there was no suggestion 

^THE times: 


of ashes, no debris of fire, no track of destruction. Cleanliness 
and order reigned as before. Calm, steady-looking com- 
positors were setting up types near the new windows, as they 
were doing in years past ; though, in place of the old grimy 

bricks, new offices looked dow.T upon us on all sides radiant 
with plate glass windows. The English sentiment in regard 

to the preservation of 
trees is touchingly illus- 
trated in the new square 
by the presence of 
a smoke-grimed truiik, 
which in the winter 
stretches withered -looking arms toward the new building, and 
in the summer puts forth a few green leaves that whisper to 
the printers, as they come and go, suggestions of woods and 
meadows and quiet rural landscapes. 

The ordinary public that reads its morning newspaper over 
breakfast has a very vague idea of the tremendous organisation 
of men and means and machinery necessary to the daily journal's 

F 2 


production. Apart from the correspondents, the telegraphists, 
the steamers, the railway trains, that are engaged in its service 
abroad, there are at home the editors, leader-writers, critics, 
reviewers, reporters, messengers, a multitude of persons, men of 
the highest culture and learning, down to the nimblest of 
chroniclers, telegraph clerks, and messengers. These, formidable 
as is their power, simply supply the pabulum, the manuscript, 
the material for manufacture. How great and how little all this 
is an outsider can hardly appreciate until he has seen a leading 
newspaper establishment at work. The Times office is a vast 
machine-shop and factory. Everything in the place, except the 
paper, is made on the spot. The " Walter " machines, which arc 
.shown at work in the illustration on page 74, were made here, 
as were also those which print The Daily Ntivs^ The Scotsman^ 
The Liverpool Post, The New York Times, and other papers. 
Indeed, the whole of the appliances in the printing of the paper 
and lighting of the rooms (even the electric lamps) are manu- 
factured on the premises, which embrace machine-shops, type, 
.stereotype, and electrotype foundries, electricians' laboratories, 
&c. The whole of the new buildings were designed and erected 
by Mr. Walter and Mr. Macdonald, without the aid of architect 
or contractor. The very bricks were made on Mr. Walter's 
estate at Bearwood, and brought to London by his own people. 
The intervention of third parties, such as contractors outside the 
control of Mr. Macdonald, would have made the reconstruction 
of an establishment like The Times, during its business hours, 
almost an impossibility. The top-floor of the building is devoted 
to the bound files of the paper. Descending to the next, you 
come to dining-rooms and kitchens ; one department for the 
clerks, another for the compositors and workmen generally. 
The service is conducted on canteen principles, and as a rule all 
the work-people are glad to have the opportunity of taking their 
meals here. The kitchens are fitted up with every modern 

'THE times: 


appliance. The meats are not baked, all kinds of joints together 
in one oven, as is the case in most English restaurants, to the 
utter destruction of their individual character and flavour; they 

ro luasted 

staff of 
cooks, with 
a chef, \\\\a 
apfK-'ars tu 
take an 

especial pride in his art. On this floor there are also store-rooms 
and other apartments. As you descend you come next to broad 
and high composing-rooms, lighted with electric lamps. Cloak- 
rooms are provided for the men, each article of clothing being 


"checked" by an attendant, after the manner of New York club- 
houses. Here and there are quiet offices, with telephonic and other 
machines in use and on trial. One room is devoted to the special 
Paris wire. By the side of the telegraph, which reels off its message 
on the now quite familiar roll of paper, is a type-setter, so that 
the Paris letter is put into type, hot as it comes in from the slips 
themselves. In another apartment are telephones connected 
with the reporters' rooms at the houses of Parliament. During 
last session all the night reports were sent to the office through 
this medium. The stenographer writes out his notes as here- 
tofore, then the manuscript is read off through the telephone. 
The recipients of the messages at The Tijnes office dictate them 
to the type setters, and so they arc put into type. The manu- 
script comes up from the Houses as heretofore, and goes into the 
reading-room, so that the proofs are read by the original copy, 
thus checking the telephonic dictation. The type-setting 
machine is made in The Times office, and is as near perfection 
as it is likely to be in our time. In a corner of one of the great 
composing-rooms there are six or seven of these little machines. 
They are capable of " composing " three-parts of the news portion 
of the paper, each putting up five or six columns a night. The 
editorial and writing rooms occupy the next story below, and 
convenient to the chiefs desk is a telegraph in direct com- 
munication with Mr. Renter's office. 

A pneumatic tube is used right through the premises for the 
distribution of ** copy,'* proofs, and messages. On the ground- 
floor arc the machines, engines (the latter in pairs in case of 
accident), foundries, and publishing offices ; so that the last 
operation of production, the printing of the forms, is conducted 
with the added facilities of approximation of departments. The 
forms come down ; they are stereotyped ; they pass to the 
machine ; the paper is printed, and goes forth into the publish- 
ing office, which opens its doors, at about four o'clock each 

'THE times: 71 

morning, to the carters and porters of Smith and Son, who are the 
chief distributers of the leading journal. In front of these busy 
rooms, cut off from the heat of the machinery, and having an 
outlet upon Queen Victoria Street, are the advertising offices, 
and the "Letter and Inquiry Department." From the aspect of a 
manufactory and governmental bureau in one, the establishment 
now assumes the appearance of a bank. The similarity is not 
without point, for here come in "the sinews of war.'* In this 
department there is a telephone in communication with the 
Royal Exchange, which can be switched off to the offices of all 
the leading advertising agents in the City. 

The inquiry department is for the use of persons whp choose 
to have their letters addressed to The Times office, for consulting 
the files, and other purposes — a convenience which the public 
evidently appreciates. The Times, with all its ramifications and 
influences, reaching from Printing-house Square to the uttermost 
ends of the earth, constitutes one of the modern wonders of the 
world ; and nothing about it is more remarkable than the fact 
that it may be said to have grown up in our day. The art of 
printing has been literally revolutionised by the present Mr. 
Walter and Mr. Macdonald. 

The Times was started in 1785, under the title of The Daily 
Universal Register, and adopted its present title three years 
later. It was originated by Mr. John Walter (grandfather of the 
present chief proprietor, Mr. John Walter, M.P. for Berkshire), 
who earned for his paper the sobriquet of " The Thunderer " by 
his bold and fearless attacks upon national abuses, his defence 
of the Right, and his defiance of all obstructions which the 
Wrong might plant in his way. 

The obstinacy with which the conductors of The Times have 
prosecuted every new mechanical contrivance, to a conclusion 
of success or failure, was an early characteristic of this esta- 
blishment. It began with an attempt to introduce and perfect 




the system known as logographic printing, a joint invention 
of the first Mr. Walter, and a Mr. Johnson. It b even said 
by some that T/w Times owes its existence to logographic 
printing. These persons say that The Daily Uni'oer sal Register 
was started to exploit the new invention, which was after 
all a clumsy metliod of casting familiar words, terminations 
of words, and even coriimunly used expressions, in one piece. 
The idea was not ijotid to begin with, and it failed, but not 

[l'h<:10Er»|ihc(l by W 

until it was literally fought out to the death. The Register 
prt^resscd nevertheless, and as there were other papers with 
similar titles, this famous one was changed for one destined to 
become still more famous. The first number of the paper ap- 
peared under its new heading on January i, 1788, with an 
elaborate and somewhat humorous address of explanation 
for the change. The following extracts from the leading 
article offer an interesting study of the changes which have 

'THE times: 73 

taken place in the editorial method of the past and the 
present : — 

" T/te Times ! What a monstrous name. Granted — for The Times is a 
many-headed monster that speaks with an hundred tongues, and dispLiys a 
thousand characters, and in the course of its transitions in hfe, assumes 
innumerable shapes and humours. 

" The critical reader will observe we personify our new name ; but as we 
j;ive it no distinction of sex, and though it will be active in its vocation, yet 
we apply to it the neuter gender. 

" The Times being formed of and possessing qualities of opposite and 
heterogeneous natures, cannot be classed either in the animal or vegetable 
genus, but like the Polypus is doubtful, and in the discussion, description, 
and illuslratfon, will employ the pens of the most celebrated amongst the 

" The heads of The Times ^ as already has been said, are many ; these will, 
however, not always appear at the same time, but casually, as public or 
private affairs may call them forth. 

"The principal or leading heads are : — The Literar)', Political, Commercial, 
Philosophical, Critical, Theatrical, Fashionable, Humorous, Witty, etc., etc., 
each of which are supplied with a competent share of intellect for the pursuit 
of their several functions ; an endowment which is not in all cases to be 
found, even in the heads of the State, the heads of the Church, the heads of 
the Law, the heads of the Navy, the heads of the Army, and, though last not 
least, the great heads of the Universities. 

** The political head of The Times, like that of Janus the Roman deity, 
is double-faced ; with one countenance it will smile continually on the 
friends of Old England, and with the other will frown incessantly on her 

" The alteration we have made in our paper is not without precedents. The 
World has parted with half its caput mortuum and a moiety of its brains ; 
The Herald has cut off one-half of its head, and has lost its original humour. 
The Post, it is true, retains its whole head and its old features ; and as to the 
other public prints, they appear as having neither heads nor tails. 

** On the Parhamentary head every communication that ability and industry 
can produce may be expected. To this great national object, The Times 
will be most sedulously attentive, most accurately correct, and strictly 
impartial in its reports." 

On the 29th of November, 1814, The Times was printed by 
steam, which is the first instance of steam being applied to 


printing. " The Book of Days," Mr. Grant's " Newspaper Press," 
and "British Manufacturing Industries," contain details of this 
notable change in the production of newspapers, and the reader 
who desires to investigate it is referred to these and kindred 
works. The Times is still a high-priced journal, is printed on 
superb paper, and its staff includes some of the ablest men in 
Europe. It pays princely salaries to its departmental chiefs 

and foreign correspondents, and stands by its writers with a 
loyal tenacity. 

The " Walter " printing-press, which is capable of printing' 
22,000 to 24,000 an hour, is the invention of the present Mr. 
Walter, who supplements his scientific studies and journalistic 
duties with the onerous labours that belong to a seat in 
Parliament. The " Walter " machine was constructed under the 
superintendence of Mr, Macdonald, who is constantly engaged 

'THE times: 75 

in working out some new scheme for the reduction of labour and 
the perfection of the art of printihg. It would be too great a 
tax upon these pages to say in how many directions The Times 
management is engaged ; but the Walter succession in Printing- 
house Square is wonderfully maintained. 

When a stamp duty was enforced upon advertisements, The 
Times paid £^0,000 in one year (1830) to the government. If 
this enactment had been continued, as well as the penny stamp 
on each paper, The Times, on its present sale and its present 
number of advertisements, would have had to pay the govern- 
ment over ;£'450,ooo a year. I am not in a position to say what 
the income of The Times is, but taking Mr. Grant's figures for 
advertisement^ and a minimum sale of 70,000 copies, its returns 
amount to quite ;^ 1,036,000. Touching the profits divided on 
other leading journals, the following figures, while they are 
not authoritative, are pretty generally accepted in journalistic 
circles as approximately correct : Daily Telegraph, ;£^ 120,000 a 
year ; Standard, £6o,QOO ; Daily News, £^0,000, Thirty years 
ago, The Times, whose conductors are not given to boasting, 
stated in an editorial article that its gross income was equal to 
that of the most flourishing of the German principalities. 


The chiefs and* writers of The Times have little or no 
personality in connection with Printing-house Square. This is a 
tradition of the paper, which is jealously maintained. Yet great 
names crop up in its literary history. Lord Beaconsfield wrote 
for it under the signature of " Runnymede " ; Sir William Ver- 
non Harcourt was " Historicus" ; the Rev. Lord Sidney Godol- 
phin Osborne wrote above the initials " S. G. O." a number of 
valuable letters on social and philanthropic subjects which ex- 
cited a great deal of interest. Some of them lent valuable aid 

76 yOL-RXAU.SnC LO.\'DOX. 

in the promotion of important reforms which have since been 
brought about. The reverend and noble writer is the author 
of " Lady Eva : her Last Days," " Scutari and its Hospitals," 
" Hints to the Charitable," and " Hints for the Amelioration of 
the Moral Condition of a Village,"' and " Letters on the Educa- 
tion of Young Children." Some years ago, in a correspondence 
between myself and this famous letter-writer of T/ie Tivies, 

the reverend and noble author referred to his work in " the 
leading journal " merely as associated with the deep personal 
interest he took in the subjects upon which he wrote. He 
mentioned it almost in a tone of disparagement, and appeared 
to think himself under an obligation to 7'/te Times that the 
editor considered his articles worthy of publication, though 
they were undoubtedly among the wisest and best letters that 
have ever appeared in The Times. Mr. Delane thought so 

'THE times: 77 

highly of them that he always had them set up in ** leaded" 
type and printed in a prominent part of the paper. Sir Austen 
Henry Layard was a constant contributor to The Tunes; 
Dean Milman wrote for it ; so also did Dr. Croly, Jones 
Loyd, Horace Twiss, and Mr. Roebuck (Tear 'em), the famous 
member for Sheffield. Gilbert A'Beckett, of Punchy was on 
the regular staff, as was also another London magistrate, Mr. 
Alexander Knox. To these names of regular and occasional 
writers may be added Sir George Dasent, James Caird, Win- 
grove Cooke, and the late illustrious Dean of Westminster- 
Mr. Edward Sterling was at one time the principal leader- 
writer, and he is mentioned by Mr. Grant as having had 
Thomas Carlyle for his biographer. In some histories of the 
early days of The Times Sterling is spol<en of under the 
title of Captain, a distinction acquired in the militia service, 
from which he and his company were received into the reserve 
force of the army, whereupon he retired, and so far as he 
was concerned dropped his military title. His eldest son 
(the late Sir Anthony Sterling, K.C.B.) was the only Captain 
Sterling recognised by the Sterling family. Carlyle's " Life of 
the Rev. John Sterling" contains some notes on Mr. Sterling 
of The Times, and is worth consulting by readers who are 
interested in his career.* Lord Sherbrookc, while he was 
ascending the social and political scale, first as member of 
Parliament, then as Cabinet Minister, and next as peer of the 
realm, wrote editorials for The Times. Mr. Leonard Courtney, 
who represents Liskeard in Parliament, is a member of its staff. 
So also is the Hon. George Brodcrick, M.P, known among his 

* ** An aniazinjjly impetuous, hasty, explosive man this Captain Whirl^vind ! * By 
Jove, Sir ! ' Thus he would swear to you, with radiant face— sometimes, not often, by a 
deeper oath. With persons of dii^nity, especially women, to whom he was always very 
gallant, he had courtly, delicate manners, verginj^ towards the wire-drawn and elaborate. 
On common occasions he bloomed out at once into jolly familiarity of the gracefully- 
boisterous kind, rcmindin^j you of mess-rooms and old Dublin days."—' G7r/)'/<-. 



friends as "' Curius Dentatus," from his prominent teeth. The 
late Mr. John Oxenford, the most accomplished and scholarly 
dramatic critic of his time, has been succeeded by Mr. Mowbray 
Morris, whose father was for many years one of the best known 
managers of TIte Times. Mr. Oxenfords colleague, Mr. James 
Davidson, stjil holds ofHce as musical critic, having in these 
latter years of his veteran service the assistance of Dr. Francis 
Hueffer, a musician and critic of considerable distinction. Mr. 


IPholOEraphc I 'y llie Lonion Slereosc pc Conpaiiy.] 

Abraham Hayward, Q.C., is supposed to be Mr. Chenery's " right 
hand" in the editorial room. Mr. Hayward is a Wiltshire man, 
educated at Tiverton, the son of a father well known as an 
authority on the science of horticulture and agriculture, upon 
which subjects he wrote several practical treatises. Mr. Chenery's 
lieutenant was born in 1803, articled to a solicitor, went to the 
Bar, and was made Queen's Counsel in 1845. Ten years before 
this last mentioned event he had made a distinguished literary 
mark by a prose translation of Goethe's " Faust," with notes. He 

'THE times: 79 

projected and established T lie Law Magazine, and is the author 
of many excellent works in various departments of study, includ- 
ing those of gourmandisc and cards. "Judicial Tracts," "Bio- 
graphical and Critical Essays," " Diaries of a Lady of Quality," 
"The Art of Dining," "Whist and Whist-players," and "More 
about Junius," arc among his numerous works. Mr. Hayward, 
prior to joining The Times, was connected with The Morning 

Chronicle, and is credited with what in those days was " a great 
feat in journalism." On the night of the second reading of the 
bill for the repeal of the Navigation Laws, he followed the debate, 
pencil in hand, making notes more particularly of a reply to 
Lord Derby. At two in the morning he took his " copy " to The 
Chronicle office, and the Protectionist speech of Lord Derby was 
answered, point for point, in the next morning's paper. Leader- 
writing of this kind is done every night in days ; but Mr. 
Hayward was the first to essay this concurrent work of editorial 
reporting. The late Mr. Tom Taylor was for many years the 


art critic of Tlie Times, M. Blowltz is intimately known by 
the modern governments of France as its Paris correspondent. 
In one of Sardou's most recent plays, the Anglo-French journalist 
is said to be represented on the stage, at an exciting period of 
the drama, plying his vocation under difficulties. Since Mr. 
Gladstone himself has been burlesqued on the English Stage, 
M. Blowitz will hardly feel that he is dishonoured by similar 
attentions in Paris. Famous men are not always walking upon 
paths that are strewn with roses. Mr. E. Dallas, an accomplished 
Scotchman, who died, comparatively young, a few years ago, was 
a notable member of Mr. Delane's staff. His association with 
The Times arose out of a casual contribution in literary criticism 
forwarded to the editor without any introduction except the 
author's card. The article impressed Mr. Delane so favourably 
that he sent for his correspondent, and gave him constant employ- 
ment. Mr. Dallas will be remembered as the author of " The 
Gay Science,*' ** Kettncr's Book of the Tabic." He conducted 
Once a Weeky after the resignation of Mr. Lucas ; and he edited a 
clever condensation of " Clarissa," published by Messrs. Tinsley. 
He married Miss Glyn the actress. Colonel Lawrence W. M. 
Lockhart, who died at Mentone, March 23, 1882, greatly dis- 
tinguished himself as a Times correspondent during the Franco- 
German war. He was author of " Double or Quits," " Fair to 
See," and several other popular novels. The Times has the credit 
of keeping in hand a collection of biographies of prominent men, 
continually posted up to date, in order that they may be ready 
for publication in the event of death rendering them necessary. 
It is possible that the completeness of this preparation for con- 
tingencies is somewhat exaggerated in the gossip of press circles, 
seeing that the death of Charles Dickens found The Times quite 
unready with a biographical sketch. Mr. Edward Walford, 
author of "The County Families," wrote the notice for The 
Times between midnight and four in the morning, with mes- 

'THE times: 8i 

Mcngers at his elbow alt the time to carry the MS. to the printer. 
Mr. Walford has written the majority of the long obituary articles 
for The Times since 1868. He wrote the Telegraph memoirs 
of the Prince Consort and Earl RusselL 

In these days there arc two names more popularly known in 
connection with The Times than any others. One is that of the 
late Mr. Delane, and the other that of Dr. William H. Russell. 
No man in our day wielded a greater power, no man of any day 

I Pholograplied by Ihc I on Ion stertoscopic Company.] 

exercised his Strength with a higher sense of responsibility, than 
Mr. John Delane, for thirty-six years editor of The Times, and 
whose death the press generally regarded as one of the calamities 
of 1879. Though a hard worker both in society and at his office, 
and accustomed to keep late hours, nearly always staying at 
I'rinting-house Square until The Times went to press, Mr. 
Delane was a florid, healthy-looking man, more like a country 
gentleman than a labiirious journalist. I.rird Palmersttm had a 
similar fresh, "bree>:y" face, and it is notable that many of 

yovh'A'Ausric londox. 

England's hardest- worked men are bright, active, stalwart 
examples of humanity. Lord Chief justice Cockburn, how 
ruddy his cheeks were, how bright his eyes, to the last! Mr. 
Anthony Trollope has the appearance of rural health, though 
he is Dp at five o'clock every morning, and at his desk Mr, 
Sala, who often writes more in a week than some of his con- 
temporaries do in a month, is " rosy as the morn," and as full of 
cheerfulness as a stripling. His "copy " ought to be exhibited 

[Pholoijraphed by Charles Watkini.] 

for the emulation of young journalists. The late Tom Taylor's 
, manuscript was as undecipherable as Sala's is neat and distinct. 
When Mark Lemon was editing Punch, writing novels, and specu- 
lating in joint-stock companies, he was a picture of Falstafhan 
cheerfulness, Mr. Burnand, with white hair and gray beard, is 
boyish in the exuberance of his animal spirits. Work agrees with 
well-balanced constitutions. Mr. Gladstone, Charles Dickens, 
Lord Palmerston, Sir Edwin Landseer, and Mr. Gladstone's 
"match-box Chancellor of the Exchequer," were Delanc's intimate 

'THE times: 83 

friends. He was a frequent visitor at Broadlands ; and the 
Countess of VValdegrave did not think a great reception at 
Strawberry Hill complete without him. He was respected by 
all, and beloved by many. When his health compelled him to 
withdraw from the editorial charge of The Times, many of his 
hardest-headed colleagues, who had worked for him and with 
him for years, could not keep back their tears as he shook their 
hands and bade them good-bye. Mr. Delane was the son of the 
previous financial manager of The Times, who died in 1858. 
The late famous editor was born October, 18 17, and was 
educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 
in 1839, and was called to the Bar in 1847. He joined The 
Times in 1839 as assistant editor under Mr. Barnes, and 
succeeded him on his death in 1841. Mr. Delane followed his 
chief in 1880, having on his resignation a year before been 
succeeded by Mr. Chenery. The new chief, one might imagine, 
from the paragraphs that have been published as to his 
personality, to be a dry-as-dust philosopher in word and deed 
and appearance. On the contrary, he is a pleasant convers*-:- 
tionalist, and has a good deal of that freshness of complexion 
which characterised his predecessor. He is gray to whiteness, 
and wears his beard and moustache. Of medium height and 
build, he looks younger than his age by some years. He was 
born in Barbadocs in 1826, was educated at Eton and at Caius 
College, Cambridge, and was afterwards called to the Bar at 
Lincoln's Inn. Dr. Wilberforcc, Bishop of Oxford, appointed 
him the Lord Almoner's Professor of Arabic at Oxford in 1868 ; 
he took his degree of M.A. about the same time ; and a year 
later the Sultan of Turkey nominated him a member of the 
second class of the Imperial order of the Medjidie. In 1870 he 
was appointed by the committee of the Convocation of Canter- 
bury one of the revisers of the authorised translation of the Old 
Testament. He is honorary secretary of the Royal Asiatic 

G 2 


Society. The works that make his name respected among 
Oriental scholars are his translation of " The Assemblies of Al 
Hariri," with notes historical and grammatical, and his edition of 
" Machberoth Ithiel," by Jehudah Ben Shelomo Alkharizi. 

Dr. William Howard Russell, "the pen of the war," will 
always be remembered as the first special war-correspondent of 
the English press, and for his graphic journalistic history of the 
Crimean war. The story of Dr. Russell's career has often been 
told. Men of the Time even devotes half a dozen columns to it, 
and his biography is familiar to the general reader on both sides 
of the Atlantic. One of the leading objects of these chapters is 
to deal more particularly with journalists who do not yet belong 
so much to fame as Dr. Russell, or to put the idea more grace- 
fully, whose exploits have not yet become part of the biographic 
history of the day. By omitting as much as possible of "twice 
told tales," and collecting facts which belong to the current story 
of "Journalistic London," these sketches can be brought within 
the compass of a reasonable space ; and it will be both to reader 
and writer pleasanter to deal with that which is new, than to be 
occpieud with a mere rt^cltaufft^ or condensation of a history that 
has already been told, and a story that has become familiar. 

( 85 ) 




Personal Journalism — Mr. Yates's Training for The World — Success — Vaiious 
Society Journals — Amenities of the Press on both sides of the Atlantic — 
The Lady with the Lamp — Sketch of the Career of Mr. Labouchere — 
Crimping American Citizens —The Attachd in Office — Playing the part 
of Meagher — Good Cards, and How to use them — ** The Besieged Resident 
in Paris" — Below the Gangway — Mr. Labouchere as a Theatrical Manager 
— A Free Lance in Journalism— Mr. Grenville-Murray — Trutfis account 
of the Editor of The (Jueefi's Messewjer — Diplomacy and Journalism — 

What might have been. 


Taking up the point of the closing sentence of the previous 
chapter, a leading princij^le of this j^ossip about journalism is to 
keep out of the rut of classification of subjects, dailies in their 
order, weeklies in theirs. Variety, at least, will be obtained by 
sandwiching between the great morning papers, notable weekly 
and other journals that peculiarly belong to the subject under 
review, and give character and distinction to the period. For 
example, within the past few years a complete change has taken 
place in the high-priced journalism of London. The World is 
among the most successful of the new weekly papers. An editor 
and writer of much varied experience, xxfldmur on a daily i)aper, 
an official of the Post-office, the intimate friend c)f Dickens, a 
novelist and a playwright. Mr. Kdmund Vates is a conspicuous 


figure of these journalistic days. The idea of a newspaper like 
Tlie World had been in his mind for fifteen or twenty years 
before he was able to carry it out. He always believed that the 
supposed horror of the British public for what is called " personal 
journalism" was a sham, and that, provided it was not vulgar 
nor scurrilous, kept free from mere tattle about women and from 
anything like a rowdy element, it was certain to be acceptable. 
This opinion was the result attending Mr. Yates's early effort in 

(Pholograpliedby W and \ H Fry | 

that school of public journalistic gossip of which he is the 
English founder. His column, "The Lounger at the Clubs," 
commenced in The IHustraied Times in the year 1855, and 
continued for many years — until, in fact, he quarrelled with the 
proprietor — his Monday fcuiileton ("The Flaneur") in The 
Morning Star, and the constant extracts which were made by 
the general press from his weekly letter to The Belfast Northern 
Whig or The Inverness Cunrier, convinced him that a paper on 
the lines of The World would be popular. "Not," said he. 


frankly, in reply to some questions I ventured to ask him the 
other day, " that I ever thought that fribble of this kind was 
sufficient in itself to constitute a newspaper — that is the error 
which has been fallen into by more than one of the imitators of 
The World — but I felt sure that if this wholesome chat and 
gossip were backed by good political and social articles, with 
first-rate dramatic, literary, and musical criticism added, and the 
whole combination formed an amusing miscellany, a great 
success would be the result. The popularity of my contributions 
to The Illustrated Times and The Star would have been far 
greater had I been allowed my full scope, but the conductors of 
both those periodicals were in the habit of toning me down. In 
my official duties by day, and in novel-writing and journalism 
by night, my time was fully occupied. I had no funds of my 
own to start a journal, and no inclination to seek for a capitalist 
who would have profited by my ideas. It was not until the 
spring of 1874 that, then enjoying a large salary as the principal 
European correspondent of The New York Herald^ I found 
myself in a position to devote a little time and a little money to 
carrying out the desire of my life. I mentioned my plan to Mr. 
Grenville-Murray, then Paris correspondent of The Nezo York 
Herald, whom I had known for some years, and received from 
him the warmest encouragement and the pleasantest co-opera- 
tion. The paper was started in July, 1874, Mr. Murray and 
myself being the sole proprietors, and was so successful that 
when Mr. Murray retired, six months afterward, in consequence 
of his residence in Paris preventing him from taking his due 
share in the direction, his moiety, for which he had paid less 
than ;^400, was assessed by the official valuer at ;^3000. The 
paper became a success directly it was seen and known ; but wq 
could not afford to advertise it, and the general public may be 
said to have had no knowledge of its existence until the report 
in the newspapers of a police charge made by Mr. Labouchere 


at the Mansion House against Mr. Abbot, a stock-broker, for 
assault. This drew public attention to the paper, and its merits 
were recognised. A summons for libel taken out against me by 
a certain firm of usurers, and heard at the Guildhall, lasting two 
days, and resulting in a complete triumph for The World, 
completed the success." 

Such is Mr. Yates's brief story of Tlie World, a journal which 
now pays an income sufficient to enable him to gratify those 

(Photographed by Van dcr X^'tvde Lieln, i8z Regent Street, London.] 

instincts of hospitality and good-fellowship which have always 
been among his best characteristics. In addition to a pleasant 
town house, Mr. Yates has a cozy and well-appointed residence 
on the Upper Thames, and his steam-launch ts a familiar and 
busy craft on the river. In his Atlas-like occupation of keeping 
up Tlie World to its original "go" and sparkle, Mr. Yates is 
ably assisted by Mr. Escott, who first wrote under his editorship 
in Temple Bar fifteen years ago. Mr. Escott contributed to the 
first number of The World, and hi.s pen has been employed upon 


it ever since. It is generally believed that Mr. Labouchcre was. 
once Yates's partner, or advanced money to start Tlie World, 
This is not so. Mr. Yates had only one partner, and since his 
retirement the paper has been his sole property. Mr. 
Labouchere was a paid contributor, and took a personal interest 
in the department over which he presided. Tlie World is very 
largely quoted by the American press, and its " Celebrities at 
Home," reprinted and bound up into several volumes, constitute 
a work of entertaining and valuable biographical literature. 

During the publication of these papers in Harper's Magazine^ 
the author received letters concerning them from all parts of the 
world. It will be appropriate to give attention to one of them 
in this place. It is from Mr. Charles Augustus Cole, who claims 
to have originated " journah'stic gossip such as gentlemen use and 
convey '* in The Leader of 1854, under the heading " Private and 
Confidential." It is so long since The Leader died, and events 
move so rapidly now-a-days, that in regard to the existing light 
and gossiping journalism under notice, Mr. Yates will be generally 
credited with its origin. That ** there is nothing new under the 
sun," is, however, singularly exemplified in The World type of 
journalism. The modern weekly which seeks to combine a little of 
Tlie Saturday Review's power of criticism, with a good deal of the 
best style of" London Letter" writing, is only repeating some of the 
more entertaining features of the old Apollo^ Grub Street Journal^ 
Gentleman's Magazine, and annexing the strength of The AgedSi6, 
The Satirist without their grossness and vulgarity. Latterly in 
The IFt?/'/^/ something of the spirit of Junius has been infused 
into certain letters to public men, the tone of which is con- 
sidered to be more or less in good or bad taste, as you may 
happen to agree or disagree with the views of the writer. That 
one or more of them may be unjust, and indeed libellous, is quite 
possible ; apart from their fairness or unfairness they are notable 
as masterly examples of scholarly and piquant vituperation. 


But touching this question of personal gossip in English journals, 
the reader will probably remember Charles Lamb's account of 
the employment of his pen in that kind of work. He wrote for 
Tlie Morning Post, and although his evidence on the subject is 
tinctured with some exaggeration and a little genial satire, it is 
not far wide of the truth. " In those days^*' (he was writing 
about 1820 of "Newspapers Thirty-five Years Ago"), says 
the gentle essayist, 

** Every Morning Paper, as an essential retainer to its establishment, 
kept an author, who was bound to furnish daily a quantum of witty para- 
graphs. Sixpence a joke — and it was thought pretty high too — was 
Dan Stuart's settled remuneration in these cases. The chat of the day, 
scandal, but, above all, dress, furnished the material. The length of no 
paragraph was to exceed seven lines. Shorter they might be, but they must 
be poignant. A fashion oi flesh, or rather //>/>t-coloured hose for the ladies 
luckily coming up at the juncture when we were on our probation for the 
place of Chief Jester to S.'s Paper, established our reputation in that line. 
We were pronounced a 'capital hand.* Oh, the conceits which we varied 
upon red in all its prismatic difftrences ! from the trite and obvious flower 
of Cytherea to the flaming costume of the lady that has her sitting upon 
*many waters.' Then there was the collateral topic of ankles. What an 
occasion to a truly chaste writer, like ourself, of touching that nice brink, 
and yet never tumbling over it, of a seemingly ever approximating something 
* not quite proper ' ; while, like a skilful posture-master, balancing betwixt 
decorums and their oppositcs, he keeps the line, from which a hair's-breadth 
deviation is destruction ; hovering in the confines of Hght and darkness, or 
where * both seem either ' y a hazy uncertain delicacy ; Autolycus-like in the 
Play, still putting ofi" his expectant auditory with * Whoop, do me no harm, 
good man ! ' But, above all, that conceit arrided us most at that time, and 
still tickles our midriff to remember, where, allusively to the flight of Astr.ta 
— ultima Ccelestikni terras reliquit — we pronounced — in reference to the 
stockings still— that Modesty taking her final leave of mortals, 
HER last Blush was visible in her ascent to the Heavens by 
THE TRACK OF THE GLOWING INSTEP. This might be Called the crowning 
conceit ; and was esteemed tolerable writing in those days." 

It may be gathered from this " confession " of " Elia," and more 
completely from a glance at the files of some of the most power- 
ful newspapers of the past, that "journalistic gossip such as gentle- 


men use and convey " varies with the times ; but the current talk, 
and the scandals of society and the clubs, have always in one 
shape or another, in a lesser or greater degree, found their way 
into the press. Although it must be confessed that an age 
which, among other things, has created " the Professional 
Beauty,*' lends itself to somewhat heated gossip and satire, even 
Tlie World's most severe competitors steer clear of the sort of 
paragraphs which made The Age and The Satirist a curse and a 
tyranny. Lord Palmcrston's preliminary resistance to the abolition 
of the stamp duty on newspapers arose out of a fear that the 
absence of this check on journahsm would revive an Age and 
Satirist era, of which Mr. Grant says : "The present generation 
can know nothing of the terror which they caused," nor ** the 
misery which their insinuations of moral conduct " created in 
many "good families." 


Among the weekly journals which Mr. Yates's success en- 
couraged into existence may be mentioned The Whitehall Review, 
May fair. Life, Pan, and Society. May fair was started, as The 
White/uill Reinew was, by one of the contributors to The World. 
It had, however, literally no raison d'etre, and it died in spite 
of the bright and capable pen of its editor, Mr. Lucy, a member 
of the staff of The Daily News. It is noticeable that journalists 
who make respectable incomes in these days are busy men, who 
do not confine their work to one groove. " Too many irons in 
the fire " is a proverb that has been considerably discounted by 
the versatility of clever men of the Victorian era. With a great 
poet, who loses none of his dignity in the estimation of critics 
because he is a shopkeeper, men of letters may take courage, for 
it is no longer considered iufra dig, to have an interest in the 
commerce of the world, that lies outside journalism and the 
writing of books. Two of our leading novelists supplement their 


incomes, one by growing fruit for Covent Garden, the other by 
managing a department of a famous publishing house. Mr. 
Lucy's work is within the journalistic Hncs, but it is various, and 
he may be taken as an example of the versatility of the best of 
his class. He is manager of The Daily News Parliamentary 
corps, special correspondent of a dozen provincial newspapers, 
author of " The Cross Benches " in The Observer^ successor of 
Shirley Brooks and Tom Taylor on Punch so far as the " Essence 
of Parliament " is concerned (it is now called " Toby's Diary ") ; 
and at the present time he is also engaged upon his first novel, 
which is to appear in the Provincial press, and afterwards in the 
traditional form of three volumes. Tlie Whitehall Review first 
made its mark through a series of portraits of feminine " Leaders 
of Society." It has latterly launched out into the field of 
caricature with spirit, and now and then with success. Founded 
in 1876, its proprietor and editor is Mr. Edward Legge, who 
commenced life as a provincial reporter, and left a position on 
The Morning Post to devote himself to The WhitelialL The 
paper is violently Conservative in politics, and it has made a 
point of declaring war against the supposed atheistical tendencies 
of the age. " Ouida " is one of its special contributors, and Mr. 
Percy Fitzgerald is its dramatic critic. On several occasions The 
Whitehall has obtained important political, social and fashionable 
intelligence ahead of both the daily and weekly press. Life has 
published some of the most artistic portrait-ca;toons of the day. 
Pan died while these papers were being published. It was 
started by Mr. Alfred Thompson, formerly the cartoonist on 
a clever paper called The Mask, which was edited by Mr. 
Leopold Lewis. The new venture was backed by Mr. Davis, a 
solicitor, and the paper made an artistic show with a couple 
of illustrations in its first Christmas number by two famous 
painters. In a short time Mr. Davis and Mr. Thompson 
separated, and Mr. David Anderson took the helm. He wrote 

' THE IVORL D ' A ND * TR UTH, ' 93 

each week for Pan a " word-portrait " of an eminent statesman. 
Mr. Anderson is one of the newest of Tlie Daily Telegraphs 
recruits, and is credited with ver>' excellent journalistic work. 
Society appears to be flourishing. It is a bi-weekly paper, price 
threepence. The editor is Mr. George W. Plant, who also con- 
ducts The British Mercantile Gazette, If there is really, as some 
great literary toilers have said, recreation if not rest in a variety 
of work, Mr. Plant's life must have fallen on pleasant lines. 
What could afford greater contrasts of journalistic labour than 
that of Society and Commercial journalism } From the hard 
financial consideration of City business to the frivolities of May- 
fair ; from the sober ways of trade and commerce to the thorny 
paths of theatrical criticism ; from the counting-house to the 
studio ; these changes must represent as much variety as any 
editor can possibly desire. 

The origin of Society is curious. The British Mercantile 
Gazette had a news feature which proved so popular that 
Mr. Plant decided to print it separately as a cheap weekly 
journal, outside the interests of trade. Changing its first 
prosaic title, while the front page was in the engraver's hands, 
he called it Society. The price was a penny, and the paper 
sold as fast as it could be printed. Nobody was more sur- 
prised at its success than Mr. Plant. In a few months he was 
enabled to issue a second paper, and his Saturday edition is a 
brightly illustrated journal, and includes among its contributors 
some well-known pens and pencils. 

The pioneers of some of the features of to-day's high-priced 
gossiping journals were The Figaro and The Hornety which in 
their turn had their prototypes in both French and English 
journalism, past and present. It was upon these two papers 
that some of the smartest of the " light horsemen " of the new 
weeklies were trained. 

The Figaro once prospered exceedingly. Its founder, Mr. 


James Mortimer, an American with a French training in journal- 
ism, first introduced it to London as a daily paper. He was 
unfortunate in challenging attention for a light, chatty, and 
serio-comic treatment of current news and literature at a 
time when the public mind was excited with the tragedies of 
a great war. Otherwise the daily Figaro might possibly have 
been alive now. A weekly edition reached an enormous circu- 
lation. Its chief leader-writer was Mr. John Baker Hopkins, a 
journalist who for many years was associated with The Law 
Journal. Mr. Hopkins is the author of " Nihilism ; or, The 
Terror Unmasked," and several works of fiction. "The Smiff 
Papers '* did much to extend the circulation of T/ie Figaro, as did 
also the dramatic criticisms signed " Alma Viva." Mr. Doughty 
was the author of the first mentioned feature, Mr. Clement 
Scott of the second. Recently the paper has been taken over 
by a limited liability company, and Mr. Mortimer appears to be 
giving more attention to play-writing than to journalism. The 
Hornet was started as a suburban paper under the title of The 
Hornsey Hornet. Promoted to London, it was purchased by Mr. 
Shaw, the respected Treasurer of the Temple, and thence it passed 
into the hands of Mr. Stephen Fiske (formerly one of the foreign 
correspondents of The New York Herald), who now drives two 
journalistic teams in the Empire city, namely. The Star and the 
dramatic department of The Spirit of the Times. Mr. Fiske 
originally came to England on board Mr. Bennett's yacht, in the 
first great Atlantic race, which he graphically described for 7 he 
Times and All the Year Round. He was entertained at Gad's 
Hill by the late Mr. Dickens, and he wrote a series of clever 
sketches in Tinsleys Magazine, under the editorship of Mr. 
Edmund Yates. It was Mr. Fiske who, in order to obtain control 
of a telegraphic wire during some work of foreign correspondence, 
astonished the editor of The Herald with the first few chapters 
of Genesis. New York critics who do not love The Herald say 


that these telegrams were " news indeed to Mr. Bennett's staff." 
This was one of those passing pleasantries which American 
journalists occasionally permit each other. They serve to make 
what might otherwise be a dull page sparkle, and they are also 
calculated to depress undue journalistic pride. Recently, The 
World of New York announced that it had made arrangements 
to have a reporter go over to New York in the steerage of an 
Atlantic steamer, in order that he might give a true account of 
the accommodation of emigrants. The Sun rejoined, "There is 
nothing new in this ; The Herald reporters have always come over 
in the steerage." Whether Ireland would consider The Suns retort 
a slight or a compliment it is hard to say. Americans will look 
in vain for badinage of this kind in London dailies, though time 
was when the metropolitan press was scurrilous and personal in 
the extreme. Without venturing for a moment to contrast the 
merit's of the journalism of cither country, there is, it seems to me, 
this essential difference between the two : the leading requirement 
of an American newspaper is that it shall be entertaining. The 
reader is all the better satisfied if he is amused as well, and even 
made to laugh. The great London dailies leave the business of 
tickling the risible faculties of the public to the comic papers, 
though of late years they have successfully competed with 
the magazines in their publication of essays and sketches, which 
once ujx)n a time would have been considered quite outside the 
pale of daily journalism. The Times of New York publishes 
every day, as a relief to the general seriousness of its excellent 
editorial page, a humorous article ; and The Evening Standard 
has frequently drawn prominent attention to the brightness of 
the writer's wit. Recently there has appeared a growing desire 
to lighten the leader-pages of the London dailies, both by short 
articles and in a modification of a certain academic style, which 
is more particularly characteristic of The Times. The success of 
.several weekly journals, which deal mostly in " leaderettes " and a 


current kind of " table talk," has, no doubt, had an influence upon 
the dailies in this direction. There is evidence here and there 
that the time is near at hand when daily columns of gossip and 
chat will also form features of the more serious press. The Daily 
News has its Monday column of theatrical notes. The Times even 
" makes up" together its semi-official and other announcements* 
so that they only require a heading to conform to the arrange- 
ments of the weeklies. T/ie Standard pushes its literary and art 
gossip away into its evening edition, as if it were ashamed of it. 
On the other hand, The Globe has entirely adopted the method 
of the so-called Society journalist in an established column 
called " By the Way." English institutions change slowly, but 
they do change, and very often for the better. Sometimes the 
change turns out to be only the revival of a forgotten custom. 


At the head of 7 he World's rivals stands one whose success 
began with its first number, in this respect eclipsing The World 
itself. With a pictorial cover representing an attractive female 
symbolism of Truth, bearing aloft in one hand the lamp of know- 
ledge, and in the other a mirror reflecting the Ciceronian motto, 
" Veritatis cultores, fraudis inimici," Truth made a novel show 
on the book-stalls. Its proprietor and editor was known as a 
daring and caustic writer, and also as a capitalist with plenty 
of money to back his daring, and plenty of courage to back 
his money. The public, knowing that it did not matter to 
Labonchere whether his paper paid or not, hastened to fill 
his treasury. The British public hates your struggling journal 
and your needy editor. It likes power, and money is a 
greater power than knowledge. Bitter, personal, brilliant, chatty, 
impudent, sometimes reckless, always amusing. Truth is liked 
and feared. It is printed in a convenient readable size, cut and 


stitched — an advance in convenience of form and shape which 
would be a welcome addition to the attractions of such widely 
read and popular many- paged papers as The Fieldy The Queen^ 
and Land and Water. 

A representative man in journalism, diplomacy, politics, and 
finance, a leading proprietor of The Daily News^ editor of Truth, 
and member of Parliament for Northampton, with the famous 
Pope's villa as his country residence, and a town house overlook- 
ing St. James's Park, Mr. Henry Labouchere fills a prominent 
position in the ranks of London notabilities. He has had an in- 
teresting, not to say romantic, career. Born in London, 1 831, he 
was educated at Eton and Cambridge. During his two years at 
Trinity he had perpetual rows with the dons. Discipline did not 
sit easily on his shoulders. On leaving Cambridge he went 
travelling. Mexico was a country he desired to see. Having 
resided in the capital some little time, he rode off on his own 
horse, and with fifty dollars in his pocket. After a ramble of 
eighteen months he returned to the capital, and fell in love with 
a lady of the circus. He travelled with the troop, a sort of 
"■Ouida"-ish hero, and took money at the doors, or rather oranges 
and maize, the equivalents for coin. By-and-by he tired of this 
occupation, and went to the United States. He found himself at 
St. Paul, which was then only a cluster of houses. Here he met 
a party of Chippcway Indians going back to their homes. He 
went with them, and lived with them for six months, hunting 
buffalo, joining in their work and sports, playing cards for wam- 
pum necklaces, and living what to Joaquin Miller would have 
been a poem in so many stanzas, but which to the more prosaic 
and eccentric Englishman was just seeing life, and passing away 
the time. He went to New York, and making that city his head- 
quarters, visited the towns round about. It occurred to him to 
go into the diplomatic service. He had influence, and he went 
into it. •* There were no examinations then," he remarked, as he 



related this incident in his career to me the other evening, 
smoking a cigar at his comfortable house at Queen Anne's Gate. 
The inference conveyed was that if there had been an educa- 
tional ordeal to pass through, he would not have entered the 
service ; but Mr. Labouchere, in spite of his political audacity and 
his journalistic arrogance, is quite a, modest man, and is full of 
deprecation of his many accomplishments, except when he thinks 
he is jarring the sensibilities of some especially moral person by 
relating incidents in his gaming and theatrical experiences (all of 
which have been harmless enough, as the world goes), and then 
he suddenly remembers rather startling episodes of his varied 
career. He was appointed attach^ at Washington, and could 
not be found. Picking up a newspaper during a journey west- 
ward, he read the announcement of his appointment to the 
position he desired. Eventually he turned up at Washington, 
where he lived for two years. During the Crimean war he aided 
and abetted the crimping of American citizens for the English 
army, and was kicked out of the Legation. It was this young 
attach^ who excited the ire of a certain American citizen who 
called to see Mr. Crampton. "I want to see the boss." "You 
can't ; he is out ; see me," replied Labouchere. " You are no good 
to me ; I must see the boss ; I can wait." '* Very well," said the 
attache, going on with his letter-writing, "take a seat." The 
visitor waited for a considerable time. At last he said, " Stranger, 
I have been fooling round here two hours ; has the chief come in 
yet } " " No ; you will see him drive up to the front door when 
he returns." " How long do you reckon he will be before he 
comes } " " Well," said Labouchere, " he went to Canada yester- 
day ; I should say he'll be here in about six weeks." 

The English attach^ was fond of gambling, and he takes 
pleasure, when in a conversational mood, in relating his troubles 
and adventures ^over cards. He once nearly starved, he says, 
owing to his passion for gambling. "While I was attach^ at 


Washington," he says, ** I was sent by the minister to look after 
some * Irish patriots ' at Boston. I took up my residence at a 
small hotel, and wrote down * Smith ' in the hotel-book as my 
name. In the evening I went to a gambling establishment, 
where I incontinently lost all the money that I had with me 
except half-a-dollar. Then I went to bed, satisfied with my 
prowess. The next morning the bailiffs seized on the hotel for 
debt, and all the guests were requested to pay their bills and to 
take away their luggage. I could not pay mine, and so I could 
not take my luggage to another hotel. All that I could do was 
to write to Washington for a remittance, and to wait two days 
for its arrival. The first day I walked about, and spent my half- 
dollar on food. It was summer, so I slept on a bench on the 
Common, and in the morning went to the bay to wash myself. 
I felt independent of all the cares and troubles of civilisa- 
tion. But I had nothing with which to buy myself a breakfast. 
I grew hungry, and toward evening so exceeding hungry that I 
entered a restaurant and ordered dinner, without any clear idea 
how I was to pay for it, except by leaving my coat in pledge. 
In those days Boston restaurants were mostly in cellars, and 
there was a bar near the door, where the proprietor sat to receive 
payment. As I ate my dinner, I observed that all the waiters, 
who were Irishmen, were continually staring at me, and evidently 
speaking of me to each other. A guilty conscience made me 
think that this was because I had an impecunious look, and that 
they were discussing whether my clothes would cover my bill. 
At last one of them approached me and said, * I beg your 
pardon, sir ; are you the patriot Meagher ? ' Now this patriot 
was a gentleman who had aided Smith O'Brien in his Irish 
rising, and had been sent to Australia, and had escaped thence 
to the United States. It was my business to look after 'patriots,' 
so I put my finger before my lips, and said, * Hush ! ' while I 
cast up my eyes to the ceiling, as though I saw a vision of Erin 

H 2 


* beckoning to me. It was felt at once that I was Meagher. The 
choicest viands were placed before me, and most excellent wine. 
When I had done justice to all the good things, I approached 
the bar, and asked boldly for my bill. The proprietor, also an 
Irishman, said, * From a man like you, who has suffered in the 
good cause, I can take no money ; allow a brother patriot to 
shake you by the hand.' I allowed him. I further allowed all 
the waiters to shake hands with me, and stalked forth with the 
stern, resolved, but somewhat condescendingly dismal air, which 
I have seen assumed by patriots in exile. Again I slept on the 
Common, again I washed in the bay. Then I went to the post- 
office, found a letter for me from Washington with some money 
in it, and breakfasted." 

On leaving the United States, the young diplomat was ordered 
successively to St. Petersburg, Munich, Frankfort, Stockholm, 
Florence, and finally to Constantinople. Wherever his post 
might be, that, it seems, was the last place at which to find him. 
Once he received notice that he had been promoted to be first 
secretary of legation at the republic of Parana. He did not go 
thither ; for, unknown to the Foreign Office, the republic in 
question had ceased to exist. At the end of six months he was 
indignantly asked by Lord Russell why he was not at Parana. 
Labouchere replied that he had imagined that he had been 
appointed a secretary in partibus infideliuni on account of his 
exemplary services, and that he might enjoy the salary in 
Europe. The official reply was a command to start at once. 
Labouchere asked " whither," whereupon the Government dis- 
covered that the republic to which they had appointed him had 
collapsed some ten months before. He was ordered to go to 
St. Petersburg. Six months afterwards he was heard of at 
Homburg. Lord Russell was once more very indignant. 
Labouchere replied that his means were small, but his zeal 
great, and that as neither his purse nor the Government liberality 


ran to the cost of trains, he was walking to Russia, and hoped to 
reach St. Petersburg in the course of the year. The scapegrace 
who worried the dons at Cambridge, it will be seen, led the 
Government a dance during his employment in the diplomatic 
service. There is a certain air of mischief to-day in his 
journalistic exploits, but he has brought to his work, as a- writer 
and an editor, an amount of worldly experience and knowledge 
which serves him well and enriches his chatty criticisms of men 
and things with a variety of wayside illustration and incident 
which is the secret of his popular style. For example, when 
Khalil Pasha was recalled from being ambassador in Paris 
because he had been posted at a club for 40,000 francs which he 
had lost at i^carti^y Laboucherc bubbled over with sympathy for 
him in Truths and related how Khalil had begun life with 
i, 50,000 a year, but having his (Labouchere*s) passion for 
gambling, had frittered most of it away. When he was Turkish 
ambassador at St. Petersburg, he lost several million francs at 
whist to the Russians about, the Couii:, which he paid like a 
gentleman. "He once saved me," said Laboucherc, *'from a 
heavy loss, and that is why I take an interest in him. He, a 
Russian, and I sat down one evening to have a quiet rubber. 
The Russians have a hideous device of playing with what they 
call a zero ; that is to say, a zero is added to all winnings and 
losses, so that 10 stands for 1000, &c. When Khalil and the 
Russian had won their dummies, I found to my horror that with 
the zero I had lost about ;^4000. Then it came to my turn to 
take dummy. I had won a game, and my opponents had won a 
game, and we were playing for the odd trick in the last game. 
If I failed to win it, I should lose about ;^8oc)0. Only two cards 
remained in hand. I had marked up six tricks, and my 
opponents five. Khalil had the lead ; he had the best trump 
and a thirteenth card. The only other trump was in the hands 
of the dummy. He had therefore only to play his trump and 


then the thirteenth card to win the rubber, when he let drop the 
latter card, for his fingers were of a very * thumby * description. 
Before he could take it up I pushed the dummy's trump on it, 
and claimed the trick. The Russian howled, Khalil howled ; 
they said that this was very sharp practice. I replied that whist 
is essentially a game of sharp practice, and that I was acting in 
accordance with the rules. The lookers-on were appealed to, 
and, of course, gave it in my favour. Thus did I make, or rather 
save, ;^8ooo, against Russia and Turkey in alliance, through the 
fault ,of the Turk ; and it seems to me that the poor Ottoman, 
now that he is at war (1877) with his ally of the card-table, is 
losing the game much as Khalil lost his game of whist to me. 
To have good cards is one thing, to know how to make use of 
them quite another thing." 

In 1864, Mr. Labouchere contested the honour of representing 
the royal borough of Windsor in Parliament. He got in, but was 
rejected, on petition, for hiring too many committee-rooms. In 
those days the judges had no jurisdiction over election inquiries, 
and there was supposed to be a broader margin allowed than 
there is now in the matter of expenses. A committee of the 
House of Commons tried the cases. The Windsor tribunal 
found that no bribery had taken place, which did not prove them 
to be over intelligent investigators ; for it was pretty well under- 
stood in the borough that a good deal of money had been unduly 
expended. . There is a story told of how Mr. Labouchere eluded 
the examination of the opposing counsel upon the question of his 
expenditure. Asked whether he had directly or indirectly paid 
money for corrupt purposes, he replied that he had not. While 
the committee were consulting as to their judgment, Labouchere, 
in his quiet cynical fashion, observed to the counsel that he should 
have pushed his question as to expenditure. " Why } *' said the 
learned counsel. " You asked me if I had paid money," said 
Labouchere. ** Being obliged to answer strictly on oath, I was 


compelled to say I had not, as I wished to be quite correct." 
" How do you mean ? " asked the embarrassed counsel. " You 
asked if I had given money. No ; I had given bonds to be sold, 
and not being a legal tender, they were not money." After his 
defeat he went once more abroad, travelling in Italy and other 
parts of Europe, and living for some time at Nice. He occa- 
sionally wrote letters for The Daily Ncnvs, of which he had 
become part proprietor. He was in Paris during the siege. A 
correspondent of The News wanted to go home, had a wife and 
family in London, and other excuses for leaving. Labouchere 
offered to stay in his stead, and to this fortunate circumstance 
the public is indebted for one of the raciest and most realistic 
accounts of the siege of Paris from a resident's point of view that 
has yet been published. The *' Diary of a Besieged Resident in 
Paris," published by Macmillan, still realises to the reader, better 
than any of the histories, the condition of Paris, its heroism, 
cowardice, frivolity, devotion, self-denial, and suffering during its 
investment and up to its final capitulation. The letters appeared 
in The Daily NewSy and with the graphic work of Mr. Forbes, 
lifted the paper from a losing property into the haven of fame 
and prosperity. *' How did you get your letters to London 
with a marked regularity that surprised everybody } " I asked 
the "besieged resident" one day. "Jules Favre," replied 
Labouchere, " kindly told the correspondents that if they gave 
letters to the balloon man, he would take special care of them. 
I guessed that the care would be special, so I used to give 
dummies to the Government messenger, and slip my letters into 
the post, addressed to a lady, who used to take them to The 
Daily News office. There was no time to overhaul all the 
private letters that went out, and mine, not being open to the 
distinction of journalistic correspondence, got through all right." 
When The World was started, Mr. Labouchere wrote its City 
articles. His first success in this new position was one that he 


would probably relate to you with a chuckle if you were on 
sufficiently familiar terms to ask him questions. It was in this 
way. He learned on good authority that the chiefs of The Times 
had resolved to force Mr. Sampson, their City editor, to resign 
his position. Labouchere at once denounced him in The World, 
and ordered The Times to dismiss him. He called upon Tlie 
Times not to delay this performance of duty, but to get rid of 
Sampson at once. The resignation of Sampson following 
quickly on The WorlcTs authoritative strictures and arrogant 
demands, impressed the city and the general public, and con- 
siderably enhanced the paper's reputation. Then followed T/ie 
Worlds campaign against the money-lenders. One of the 
persons attacked brought a criminal prosecution against The 
World, but the case was dismissed. It was at this time that 
The World became a profitable institution. Having " an eye 
to business," Labouchere withdrew from T/ie World and started 
Truth. The paper paid from the first. It was bright, per- 
sonal, and, one might add with fairness, impertinent. The 
gossip was fresh, careless, well-informed, and fearless. Society 
is cruel. It enjoys the misfortunes of its neighbours. People 
bought Truth with a desire to sec who was " going to get it 
next,'* who or what institutions would be marked down for 
exposure. City men who were shaky trembled, snobs who were 
chary of their supposed dignity opened the paper with nervous 
fingers. Labouchere hit out right and left, sometimes fairly, 
sometimes unfairly, but always cleverly, always with skill, always 
with courage. He was threatened openly and privately with 
physical punishment, but his pen never wavered, and he dipped 
it the deeper into gall the more he was opposed. 

It is not the province of the present writer to discuss the 
morale of what may be called personal journalism ; he only 
knows that those who profess to condemn it arc frequently its 
most constant readers. Truth has had to fight several formidable 


libel suits, but as a rule it has come out of court with flying 
colours, the Robertson and Lambri suits being, in their way, 
celebrated cases. Just prior to the last general election a depu- 
tation from Northampton waited upon Mr. Labouchere and asked 
him to stand in the Liberal interest for that borough. He went 
down and fought the borough side by side with Mr. Bradlaugh, 
and was returned with that other candidate. Mr. Labouchere 
sits below the gangway among the ultra-Radicals. He is a fire- 
brand among the firebrands, but there is a certain educational 
polish in his style and manner when addressing the House that 
wins for him always a respectful and ready attention. His 
defence of his colleague Bradlaugh, when the junior member for 
Northampton was excluded from the House, was characterised 
by great moderation and discretion ; and whatever his views 
may be in regard to Mr. Bradlaugh's theology and unwholesome 
" philosophy," he carefully avoided any expression of opinion in 
regard to them. 

Incidental to his other ventures and adventures, the honourable 
member for Northampton has had interesting theatrical 
experiences. He owned the Queen's Theatre. Sometimes he 
let it, and sometimes brought out plays himself He generally 
lost by them, but now and then had a success. Occasionally in 
the midst of the preparations for a new production he would go 
abroad. When particularly wanted by the management, he could 
not be found. The work went on, however, all the same, and so 
did the loss. Once he was advised to cram the house for a week 
with " orders " so that nobody could get in. The traditional 
** Full " was posted at all the entrances. He did this on condition 
that after a week everybody should be compelled to pay. When 
the second week came, the house was empty. Then the actors 
complained. They could not act to empty benches. ** Why 
don't you draw ^ " was Labouchere's reply to their grievance. 
" Draw ! — confound it ! Why don't you draw ? " He announced 


Shakspearean revivals, proposing to produce one new play of the 
bard's in splendid style every year. Notices were put up at all 
the entrances, inviting the audiences to vote on the piece. For 
a long time he worked up quite an excitement by posting up the 
results of the voting. " This was a capital idea ; it increased the 
number who paid at the doors immensely." Nevertheless, the 
Queen's did not prove a financial success, and it has lately been 
converted into a co-operative store. 


The name of Mr. Grenville-Murray has been mentioned in con- 
nection with the early days of The World, It might be 
associated with clever work on many other English as well as 
French journals. The free lance /^r excellence of journalism was 
laid to rest early during the last days of 1 88 1. A French 
litterateur called upon me one day to propose arrangements for 
the publication of Journalistic London in France. " I have only 
one suggestion to make,*' he said in regard to the matter, " and 
that is some extended reference to Mr. Grenville-Murray." The 
next day the Anglo-French journalist died, and the justice which 
he had not received in these papers was awarded to him in 
obituary memoirs on both sides of the Channel, and also in the 
United States. Mr. Murray was a prolific writer, and a restlCvSs 
and busy man. Had he desired popularity, he had the ability 
to command it ; but he appeared to seek rather to ostracise 
himself from Society than to court its good opinion ; and he 
invariably wrote as though he cherished a bitter spite against 
English officialism and the ruling powers. Mr. Labouchere, in 
an "Anecdotal Photograph" in Truth, relates Mr. Murray's 
connection with diplomacy, and reveals some of the causes of 
Mr. Murray's evident bias against English ministers, though 
the more than kind treatment which he received at the hands of 


Lord Palmerston might, in a more genial nature, have covered 
the multitude of sins which he conceived were afterwards 
committed against him. 

According to Trutlis story of its contributor's career (Murray 
wrote many of Truth's "Queer Stories," and contributed similar 
matter to Papi until its death) Mr. Murray " attracted the attention 
of Lord Palmerston when a mere lad," and his connection with 
diplomacy was the work of that famous minister. He sent 
Murray as attache to Vienna, with a private understanding that 
he might act as correspondent of The Morning Post, which was 
then a Palmerstonian organ. This was carefully concealed from 
Lord Westmoreland, the English ambassador. Murray sent his 
letters to London in the Foreign Office bag. The editor of The 
Post had changed his residence. The epistles were opened, and 
returned as "dead letters" to the Embassy. Lord Westmoreland 
read them, and indignantly reported the attache to Lord Palmer- 
ston. But Murray was not dismissed, and he earned the hatred 
of Lord Westmoreland, as he did later of Sir Stratford dc 
Redcliffe at Constantinople. Transferred to that capital, he was 
ordered to replace the Vice-Consul at Mitylene, where he 
remained for a year. 

" He employed his time in writing the *' Roving Englishman," which first 
appeared in the columns of Household IVon/Sy then in the first flush of its suc- 
cess under the editorship of Charles Dickens. For graphic description and 
biting sarcasm these sketches have never been excelled. They made Murray's 
name known in the literary world, for, although published anonymously, the 
name of their author was an open secret. The rage of Sir Stratford at seeing 
himself held up by one of his own attaches to European ridicule as Sir Hector 
Stubble may better l)e imagined than described. But what could he do ? 
The sketch had appeared in Household Words, and although Murray took 
care that he should not be in ignorance of the writer's name, the great Eltche 
could not adduce one iota of proof. "He shall rot in Mitylene," he went 
about grumbling, and in order to revenge his lacerated feelings, he treated 
the attaches and secretaries that were about him rather worse than dogs. 
Ambassadors propose and the Foreign Office disposes. A dispatch was 
received at Constantin )plc, informing Sir Stratford thai the vacant Vice 


Consulate at Mitylene had been filled up, and that Mr. Murray would return 
to fulfil his official duties at the Embassy. This was soon followed by the 
bland attach^ reappearing and reporting his arrival to his Excellency. He 
was at once sent home with dispatches. Having delivered them, again he 
returned. Again he was ordered home with dispatches. " Tell him," said 
the frantic Eltch^, "that there is a fever raging in the Principalities. If he 
comes back again, I will keep him there until the fever delivers me of him." 
When Murray reported this at the Foreign Office, it was thought that if he 
and Sir Hector Stubble remained tied to each other by official bonds, either 
Sir Hector would murder him, or would himself die of rage, and as neither of 
these alternatives seemed desirable, Murray was transferred to the legation at 
Teheran. Before, however, starting for his new post, he received the 
appointment of Consul-General at Odessa. There he remained for ten years, 
and it may be said that he waged a ten-years' war against the English 
residents, the bone of contention being certain fees, which he claimed as his 
right, and which the residents said that they ought not to pay. For ten years 
the residents and he indited letters and dispatches to the Foreign Office, and 
for ten years he held his ground against them. Finally, Lord Derby, who 
had become Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, decided the issue in favour 
of the residents, on which Murray, shaking the official dust from his shoes, 
ceased to give his services to his country, and on his return to England 
re-entered the profession of journalism.* 

He appeared at head-quarters, and started The Queens 
Messenger. It was satirical, personal, unfair, and disloyal. 
In a short time Mr. Murray involved himself in a dispute 
with Lord Carington, which culminated in a police court 
prosecution, the result of which is thus chronicled by the 
previously quoted writer in Truth, than whom no one knew 
the subject better : — 

" Mr. Murray, in a series of sketches of politicians of a former day, had dealt 
severely with Lord Carington's father, the friend and banker of Mr. Pitt. 
This his son resented. Both the disputants were, to a certain extent, wrong, 
and to a certain extent right. Mr. Murray pleaded that the first Lord 
Carington had become an historical personage, and that all connected with his 
career was open to historical research ; Lord Carington pleaded that the 
memory of his father was dear to him, and that he could not allow it to be 
assailed with impunity. After the hearing of the case at Bow-street, Mr. 
Murray withdrew to Paris, where he resided until his death. His life in 
Paris was quiet and uneventful. Most of his time was occupied in writing. 


He lived with his family, and was not very accessible to acquaintances. He 
had married a lady with a Spanish title, by which he himself became possessed 
of the title, and was known as the Comte de Rethel d'Aragon. When in the 
humour, he was a brilliant conversationalist — humorous, caustic, and full of 
anecdote. In person, he was slim, and rather below medium height, with 
well-cut features, exceedingly bright eyes, and with a face that lighted up 
when he was animated ; but few of those who may have seen him in an old 
felt hat and a still older shooting-jacket, strolling along the Boulevards or in 
the alleys of the Bois de Boulogne, would have imagined that they were in the 
presence of the ablest journalist of the century." 

Though journalists and the critical public will disagree 
with this judgment, nobody will question the writing ability 
of Mr. Grenville-Murray ; but this is not the only qualifi- 
cation that goes to the making of a great journalist. Mr. 
Murray had a light and bracing style, and was a rare example of 
industry. Novelist, essayist, leader-writer, gossip, he contributed 
to every department of the current literature of his time. He 
wrote several books under the uom de plume of " Trois Etoiles." 
His "Member for Paris" is eminently entertaining, as his 
general work invariably was when free from personal ani- 
nlosity and spite. " Young Brown," which originally ap- 
peared in The Cornhilly was, it is said, "bought up" on 
the Continent by Prince Bismarck. A transatlantic critic 
says of it, " The duke from whom the author got his name of 
Grenville was ruined by his own and his ancestors* ex- 
travagance, and the sale of his effects at his magnificent 
seat, Stowe, created an extraordinary interest at the time. 
In 'Young Brown,' the situation of the duke, penniless amid 
his magnificence, is finely and forcibly described." Touching 
this said duke the writer (one of the literary authors of the 
** nonpareil editorials " in The New York Times) says, " Whoever 
Mr. Grenville-Murray's ostensible father may have been, he was 
generally regarded as a son of the late Duke of Buckingham, 
whom he has graphically delineated in * Young Brown/ a book 


republished here and extensively read. His father's interest 
early secured him a position under the Foreign Office, but his 
own waywardness, perversity, and want of principle led to his 
being ultimately compelled to quit the service, and his main 
object then became vengeance on all those whom he believed to 
have been in anywise connected with his expulsion. He 
published with this end an exceedingly scurrilous paper, which 
involved him in difficulties and led to his compulsory residence 
for the rest of his days out of England." This is the American 
view of the blank which appears in most of the English obituary 
notices as touching his parentage ; though Mr. Murray himself 
would hardly have approved of this squeamishness, more espe- 
cially when so many great family names flourish, in honour and 
dignity, in spite of the bar sinister. So far as intellectuality 
goes, those who argue strongly in favour of the hereditary in- 
heritance of ability, may possibly see an example of the truth 
of their theory in the capacity of Mr. Murray, of whom it may 
be said that under favouring circumstances (had he not wittingly 
or unwittingly raised the ire of Lord Westmoreland, or had not 
his first letters to The Morning Post gone astray) he might have 
established for himself a worthy and comfortable fame both in 
diplomacy and in journalism. Judging from the description of 
the restfulness and repose of his last days he was perfectly 
content with his position. He had many admirers and a few 
devoted friends ; and his death was regarded as a calamity by 
many an editor, French and English, accustomed to the regular 
supply of his contributions, which, whatever their other merits 
or demerits, were always readable and never dull. 

( HI ) 


A Holiday that led to Serious Work — '* Leader-writer Wanted " — Mr. Arnold 
and the Eastern Question — Discussions with the Premier — "Theodore the 
King" — Mr. Arnold's Literary Labours — The Expeditions to Assyria and 
Africa — "The Light of Asia" — Mr. Arnold's Reputation in America — 
The Order of the White Elephant — The Iliad of India — Mr. Arnold at 
Home — Anonymous Journalism from Different Points of View — Critics 
and Criticism— A Word of Advice to Beginners in Literature. 


One summer day, some twenty years ago, a young author and 
his wife were enjoying a fishing excursion on the river Dart. A 
friend had sent them a copy of The Athenceum containing a 
review of the author's first translation from the Indian classics. 
Turning over the pages of the critical journal, his eye fell 
upon an advertisement which announced that a leader-writer 
was required for a new daily new^spaper. The character of the 
journalistic enterprise was hinted at, and the political principles 
of the services of the gentleman who was wanted were clearly 
defined. " That is the very position I should like," said the young 
Anglo-Indian to his wife ; '*the idea is new, the cheap press is a 
splendid and important experiment, the object one with which I 
heartily sympathise. I think I will write about it." And so the 
young couple sauntered home amidst scenes of sunshine utterly 
in contrast with the surroundings of a Fleet Street printing-office. 


He was no inexperienced scholar, no mere seeker after 
employment, the young author who had accidently stumbled 
upon his destiny on that summer day by the sea. Educated at the 
King's School, Rochester, and at King's College. London, he 
had won a scholarship at University College, Oxford. In 1852 
he obtained the Newdigate prize for his English poem on " The 
Feast of Belshazzar," and in the year following he was selected 
to address the late Earl of Derby on his installation as 
Chancellor of the University. He graduated in honours in 
1854. On quitting college he was elected second master of 
King Edward the Sixth's School, a famous midland counties 
educational institution at Birmingham. He resigned this 
position for the appointment of Principal of the Sanskrit College 
at Poona, in the Bombay Presidency, with a fellowship of the 
University of Bombay, which offices he still held when the 
words " Leader-writer Wanted " attracted his attention. He 
was taking a vacation in his native country. In 1 861 the 
young Sanskrit Principal bade farewell to Poona. He had 
accepted the appointment on the editorial staff which he and 
his wife had discussed in a vague kind of way that very year 
off Portsmouth. The paper in question was Tlie Daily Tele- 
graph; the volunteer for journalistic work was Mr. Edwin 
Arnold, perhaps the most unselfish enthusiast that ever attached 
himself to politics and the press. 


Although in many respects Oriental in his tastes, Edwin 
Arnold may be regarded as a typical Englishman. He has 
never allowed his literary labours to overcome his love of 
out-door life. A master of field-sports, he has a thorough 
knowledge of horses, dogs, and guns, and is particularly fond of 
yatching. Few men living have a more thorough acquaintance 


with Indian affairs. The first editorial he ever wrote in The 
Telegraph was on the British Empire in the East Since that 
time he has written upwards of six thousand leading articles. 
During the two years and a half of the Eastern Question which 
is stained with the blood of the great war between Russia and 
Turkey, Mr. Arnold wrote between four and five hundred 
consecutive articles — leaders that were looked for with interest 
and anxiety by all classes of the people, the more so that The 
Telegraph found itself at variance, on foreign politics, with the 
party it had hitherto supported decisively, and in favour of the 
maintenance of British prestige and power in the East. Edwin 
Arnold did this great work at white heat, his " editorials " being 
usually written at the last moment, on the very latest points of 
the controversy. It is not too much to say for the influence of 
The Daily Telegraph at this time that it was an important 
agency in sustaining the Beaconsfield Government in office. Mr. 
Edward Levy Lawson, who had a proprietor's control of the 
policy of the paper, entered heart and soul into its action in 
regard to the national policy of the time, and is entitled to the 
highest consideration for his patriotic self-denial. Holding large 
proprietary rights in The Telegraph, he ran great financial risks 
in taking up arms against the Gladstonian succession, which his 
paper had hitherto supported. But in direct sympathy with 
Mr. Joseph Cowen, of The Newcastle Daily Chronicle, and Mr. 
Leng, of Tlie Sheffield Daily Telegraph, his policy was first 
English, and then political ; first for the empire, and then for 
the party. And so this great journal, strongly Radical in home 
and domestic politics, became Conservative in regard to the 
duty of holding the empire, which is a legacy from England's 
heroic travellers, statesmen and soldiers. There must be a 
good deal that is worthy in a cause which attracts to it, from 
the very centre of the Radical faith, such journalists as Cowen, 
Leng and Arnold. It is pleasant to hear the great leader- 



writer of TIte Telegraph speak of his proprietor and col- 
league Lawson, whose political tact and wisdom have proved 
of incalculable benefit in the guidance and administration 
of the establishment, both in regard to its editorial and its 
mechanical and commercial management. It has been said 
out-of-doors that there is a bitter personal feud between Mr. 
Gladstone and Mr. Arnold. There is not. The Premier 
amicably discussed with him and Mr. Lawson the Eastern policy 
of Beaconsfield in a long interview at the office. They differed 
in the friendliest manner. After a long interview they parted, 
the Liberal chief to follow one political path, the journalist 
another. Each expressed honest regret at their divergence of 
views, but there was no rancour in their political leave-taking. 
Friendly then, they are friendly now, though separated in a matter 
of public policy by a wide and deep gulf. Mr. Gladstone's 
portrait and bust adorn the editorial sanctum in Fleet Street, 
while Mr. Arnold only speaks of the brilliant Premier with respect 
and honour, but at the same time with regret at Mr. Gladstone's 
imperfect knowledge of the East. 

When Mr. Arnold gave up India he accepted the tradition of 
the anonymous, which is the weakness and the strength of 
English journalism — a bad thing for the writer, a good thing for 
the newspaper. He effaced himself, as it were, and not for 
considerations of money, but out of a real Ipve for the work, and 
an earnest desire to be practically useful in his generation — to 
advance the interest of a great cause, to exercise an influence in 
the work of popular education, to instruct the people, to make 
the world better than he found it, and, if possible, to inculcate 
gentler manners, higher beliefs, happier ideas of life. This was 
the sort of inspiration that, no doubt, stirred him on that long 
past summer day's vacation, and I have never met in our grand 
profession of journalism one who has a more earnest or exalted 
conception of the duties, privileges, responsibilities and power 


which belong to the conduct and administration of a great daily 
newspaper. Coupled with this is a singular modesty. Mr. 
Arnold, like George Eliot, has never been photographed, and his 
biography has never been written. A few facts and dates, 
landmarks in his career, appear in "Men of the Time." The 
present necessarily brief sketch of him is the only important 
tribute to his genius in current literature, outside the reviews of 
his books .and the splendid acknowledgment of his learned 
muse by America. In 1868, I remember, when I wanted a 
characteristic contribution for Tlie Gentleman s Maga:iine upon 
the victorious trophies, spolia opima, of his late Majesty King 
Theodore of Abyssinia, I obtained it from Mr. Edwin Arnold. 
How the eloquent writer began his paper I am reminded to-day 
when I have the pleasure of talking with him about the work of 
journalism. ''Annnlus Hie Cannarum vindexl*' was his text. 
How brilliantly and impressively he moralised upon it, gazing 
upon the Kensington show-case, is not to be forgotten. " Theo- 
dore the King" is one of the literary gems, in some twelve 
volumes of the popularised Gentleman's, upon which I look with 
the pride of one who successfully adapts to a new order of things 
the best parts of an old and decaying institution. 

** I should like to mention one thing," said Mr. Arnold to me 
the other day, during an interview I had with him in his cosy 
but unpretentious room at The Daily Telegraph office — "the 
value of a classical as well as a general training for editorial 
work. I have found immense advantage arising from my 
academical studies. Greek and Latin have been of infinite 
service to me in the commonest work of a cheap press. I think 
it impossible for a newspaper man to be too widely read and 

" How many dead and living languages do you speak or 
read ? " I asked. 

" Ten," he said ; and then going back to the theme he had 

I 2 


started, he added: "No knowledge is wasted in journalism; 
sooner or later everything you know or have seen, every 
experience of life, every bit of practical knowledge, is valuable. 
You spoke just now of Mr. Edward Lawson. He is one of the 
most naturally capable and quick-thoughted men I know. It is 
probably from his father that he inherits that instinctive sense of 
public sentiment and opinion, of national feeling, which is a rare 
quality, and important as rare, in the conduct of a newspaper. 
Just now you were speaking of the relationship of a newspaper 
staff, the one to the other ; I may tell you that in this office we 
live together more like close friends than mere comrades ; we 
always meet on a familiar and hearty footing ; it is impossible to 
imagine more comfortable relations." 

This had struck me before, and it is apparent in every 
department of the establishment. The personal features of 
** Journalistic London " crowd too much upon one's attention to 
leave room for technical essays. It must be sufficient in this 
respect to say that the mechanical appointments of The Daily 
Telegraph office are of the completest kind. The paper is printed 
on ten Hoe's machines, which turn out an average of 120,000 
copies per hour, this number having been increased by a new 
patent roller composition that docs away with frequent " clean- 
ing up," retains its " face," and is not influenced by heat or cold. 
Similar to The Times, and indeed all the other papers, are the 
arrangements for setting the type, casting it into semicircular 
forms, and machining it. Though the stereotyping foundry is a 
far less imposing apartment than the composing and machine 
rooms, it offers interesting features for pictorial illustration. 

The Telegraph has new and magnificent offices on the north 
side of Fleet Street, and its advertising signposts point to that 
locality from nearly every street and turnpike in the United 
Kingdom. The total cost of the new building has been 
something like ;{^ 100,000, including the value of new ground, 


temporary offices, &c. The editorial rooms are of extensive 
dimensions, the editor's sanctum including a tine library 

surrounded by a gallery. All the rooms are connected by 
pneumatic tubes, through which "copy" and "proofs" are 
driven between the editor's, sub-editor's, and printer's depart- 


ments, thereby abolishing to a large extent that constant 
source of delay and annoyance — the " printer's devil." 

The record of Mr. Arnold's literary labours is an eminently 
distinguished one. He is the author of " Griselda, a Drama;" 
" Poems, Lyrical and Narrative ; " '* The Euterpe of Herodotus " 
(a translation from the Greek text, with notes); "The Hito- 
pades'a " (with vocabulary in Sanskrit, English and Mahratti) ; 
and a metrical translation of the classical Sanskrit, under the 
title of" The Book of Good Counsels ; " " The Poets of Greece ; " 
the " Indian Song of Songs ; " and " The Light of Asia.'' In 
addition to these and other poetical works, he has written a 
book on " The Education of India," and " The History of the 
Administration of India under the late Marquis Dalhousie 
(1862-64)," in two volumes. In regard to the latter work, it 
has been said that the author had a quarrel or misunderstanding 
with Lord Lawrence. This is not so. On the contrary, he had 
the co-operation of his lordship in the entire work. Many of 
the notes are, indeed, Lord Lawrence's own, and he helped the 
author with much information, and to the last was on most 
friendly terms with him. 

One day Mr. Lawson said to Edwin Arnold, " What shall 
we do — something new } " " How much will you spend ? " 
asked Arnold. " Anything you like." " Very well," said 
Arnold ; " send out and discover the beginnings of the Bible." 
This was the origin of Mr: Smith's expedition to Assyria, which 
Mr. Arnold arranged, and for the results of which he was 
publicly thanked by the trustees of the British Museum. A 
similar characteristic inquiry, " What again shall we do } " led 
to the Stanley expedition, in conjunction with The New York 
Herald, to Africa in search of Livingstone, and for the com- 
pletion of his work. These and other equally notable services 
might well help to earn for Mr. Arnold the distinction of 
" Companion of the Star of India," which he was named on the 


proclamation of Queen Victoria as Empress of India, January i, 
1877. Iri 1879 he was elected a resident member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. His other dis- 
tinctions include a second class of the imperial order of the 
Mcdjidie, honorary member of the Societe de Geographic, 
Marseilles, and recently the order of the White Elephant of 
Siam, which remains for further mention. "The Light of Asia," 
published in 1878, met with a reception of general praise from 
the English critics, but in America it enjoyed an immediate 
popularity which no modern poem has obtained in England, and 
few in the United States. A noble poetic interpretation of a 
lovely life, and a great philosophic reformer, ** The Eight of 
Asia " is a work which will keep for its author a high place in 
the foremost rank of modern English poets. It rapidly went 
into six editions in the United States, and has sold 70,000 copies. 
To the American edition of his ** Indian Song of Songs " the 
publishers append the following extract from a letter written to 
Ihem by Mr. Arnold, February 16, 1880, in which he says: 
*' Nothing could have given me profounder pleasure than the 
favour shown me thus by the transatlantic English, and I hope 
some day to make suitable acknowledgment of the immense 
distinction conferred on me by your public.** Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, whose reputation stands as high with the English as 
with the Americans, has written as follows of **The Light of 
Asia " in The Inter national Reviciv : *' It is a work of great 
beauty. It tells a story of intense interest, which never flags 
for a moment. Its descriptions are drawn by the hand of a 
master, with the eye of a poet, and the familiarity of an expert 
with the objects described. Its tone is so lofty that there is 
nothing with which to compare it but the New Testament. It 
is full of variety, now picturesque, now pathetic, now rising to 
the noblest realms of thought and aspiration. It finds language 
penetrating, fluent, elevated, impassioned, musical alv/ays, to 


clothe its varied thoughts and sentiments." Perhaps, however, 
the highest compliment Mr. Arnold has received is from the 
King of Siam, who may be styled "the Defender of the 
Faith" of Buddhism. His Majesty has read the book through 
with critical care and delight. It is the first English poem he 
has read, though he has a fair knowledge of our prose literature, 
many examples of which he has translated into Siamese. He 
has sent Mr. Arnold, in recognition of his splendid interpretation 
of the gentle, humane, and noble spirit of Buddhism, the first 
class of the exalted order of the White Elephant, with an 
autograph letter in English, of which the following is a copy : — 


"Grand Palace, Bangkok, December f^, 1879. 

" Sir, — My father devoted much time to the study and defence of his 
religion, and although I, being called to the throne while young, had no time 
to become a scholar like him, I, too, have interested myself in the study of 
the sacred books, and take a great interest in defending our rehgion, and 
having it properly understood. It seems to me that if Europeans believe 
the missionary preaching that ours is a foolish and bad religion, they must 
also believe that we are a foolish and bad people. I therefore feel much 
gratitude to those v.'ho, like yourself, teach Europeans to hold our religion in 
respect. I thank you for the copy of your poem, *The Light of Asia,* 
presented to me through my Minister in London. 1 am not a sufficiently 
good scholar to judge English poetry, but as your book is based upon the 
similar source of our own information, I can read it through with very much 
pleasure, and I can say that your poem, * The Light of Asia,' is the most 
eloquent defence of Buddhism that has yet appeared, and is full of beautiful 
poetry ; but 1 like Book II. very much, and am very much interested in the 
final sermon. 1 have no doubt that our learned men would argue with you 
for hours or for years, as even I can see that some of your ideas are not 
quite the same as ours ; but I think that in showing * love ' to have been the 
eminent characteristic of the Lord Buddha and Karma, in Siamese Kam, 
the result of the inevitable law of Dharma, the principles of existence, 
you have taught Buddhism, and I may thank you for having made a 
European Buddhist speak beautifully in the most wide-spread language in 
the world. 

" To mark my good opinion of your good feeling towards Eastern peoples, 
and my appreciation of your high ability and the service you have done to 
all Buddhists by this defence of their religion, I have much satisfaction in 




, J *,ji^,L 

.(W i[infli(lfK;irtfl(jii^rinii;fi ^liJnrrmunTliJdifJiAnifnni iHHfl^unili»^rtfl«r Jfiiut>:i;nfi» 

I SImTt niRmiMc') j|Hfim9iiin Jim;, 
„c5j ,X)iflV,it,4i1^i 


appointing you an officer of our most exalted order of the White Elephant, of 

which you will soon hear further from Mr. D. K. Mason, my Consul-General 

in London. 

" I am yours faithfully, 

" (Manu Regia) Chulalonkorn, King. 

" To Edwin Arnold y Esq,, CSJ., &*c.^* 

The diploma is engrossed on parchment in black, red and gold, 

and the following is a translation of this curious and interesting 

document : — 

" Somdelch Phra Paramindr Maha Chulalonkorn, Phra Chula Chom Klao, 
King of Siam, fifth sovereign of the present dynasty, which founded and 
established its rule at Katana Kosindr Mahindr Ayuddhya, Bangkok, the 
capital city of Siam, both northern and southern and its dependencies, 
suzerain of the Laos and Malays and Koreans, <SI:c., &c. — To all and 
singular to whom these presents shall come. Know ye, we deem it right 
and fitting that Edwin Arnold, Esquire, author of * The Light of Asia,' should 
be appointed an officer of the most exalted order of the W4iite Elephant, 
to his honour thenceforth. May the Power which is most highest in the 
universe keep and guard him, and grant him happiness and prosperity ! 
Given at our palace Parama Raja Sthit Maholarm, on Tuesday, the nth 
waning of the lunar month Migusira, the first month from the cold season of 
the year Toh Ekasok, 1241 of the Siamese era, corresponding to the 
European date 9th of December, 1879, of the Christian era, being the 
4046th day or 12th year of our reign. 

" (Manu Regia) Chulalonkorn, R. S." 

The International RevieiiJ for January, 1881, contains the first 
fruits of a stupendous work, the inspiration of which possesses 
Mr. Arnold at the present time, and which has occupied his 
thoughts for years. Like Mr. Gladstone in this respect, what 
would be a great labour to most men is to him a great relaxa- 
tion. He has discovered, under peculiar circumstances, the 
Maha-Bhdrata, which is the Iliad of India, in which are en- 
shrined "the stories, songs, and ballads; the history and 
genealogies ; the nursery tales and religious discourses ; the art, 

the learning, the philosophy ; the creeds, the moralities, the 


modes of thought ; the very phrases, sayings, forms of ex- 
pression, and daily ideas of the Hindoo people." What the 


Old Testament is to the Jewish race, the New Testament to 
the civilisation of Christendom, the Koran to Islam, so are 
the two Sanskrit poems to that unchangeable and teeming 
population which her Majesty Queen Victoria rules as Empress 
of India. Their children and their wives are named out of 
them ; so are their cities, temples, streets and cattle. They 
have constituted the library, the newspaper, and the Bible, 
generation after generation, to the countless millions of the 
Indian people. It replaces patriotism within that race, and 
stands instead of nationality, to possess these two precious and 
inexhaustible books, and to drink from them as from mighty 
and overflowing rivers. The value ascribed in Hindostan to 
these remarkable epics has transcended all literary standards 
established in the West. They are personified, worshipped, 
and cited from as something divine. Mr. Arnold has given an 
example of the Mahd-Bharata in stirring blank verse, which, 
as in " The Light of Asia," demonstrates alike the power of 
the poet and the learning of the scholar. 

It is an Oriental education to converse with Edwin Arnold 
on Eastern subjects ; and as he comes out of his world of 
romance to talk of Fleet Street, there is a sympathetic expression 
of admiration and regret in his voice and manner as he calls to 
mind, for the information of the present writer, the brilliant men 
whom the press has absorbed without the world knowing a word 
about them. Notably he gives as instances Prouse and Purvis, 
both of whom were counted among the most brilliant of 
Telegraph writers. In spite of Edwin Arnold's serious and 
responsible labours, this distinguished scholar, and 
poet looks some years younger than his age. He was born in 
1832. Of medium height, and medium figure, he suggests 
activity both of mind and body. Studious, thoughtful, grayish 
eyes, his face has an expression of kindly geniality, though it is 
easy to see that his nature is as sensitive and enthusiastic as it 


is gentle and self-denying. He is a man who makes you at 
home at once. There is no affectation of superior wisdom, no 
self-consciousness, to hold you in check. He has the pleasant 
repose of a travelled man, and an easy familiarity of conversa- 
tion which one meets with, perhaps, more frequently in the United 
States than in England. By his colleagues he is not so much liked 
as beloved. His delicate consideration for all around him, his 
kindness to them in sickness and in trouble, and his uniform 
sweetness of temper, combined with a quiet firmness, are spoken 
of by his associates in enthusiastic terms. At home and in his 
editorial room he usually wears an ordinary gray suit and cap, 
such as might be donned for a boating excursion, or for a 
holiday scamper into the country. Mr. Arnold has been twice 
married, his present wife being a niece of Dr. Channing, of 
Boston, United States. 


I again recall the circumstance that during a recent conversa- 
tion with Mr. Arnold, his sympathetic nature took in the lot 
of certain brilliant colleagues who had gone down to the grave, 
unknown men, under cover of the anonymous press. The Satur- 
day Review, in a notice of a recent work which contrasted journal- 
ism on both sides of the Atlantic and noted the personal prizes 
that fall to newspaper men in France, took exception to the 
author's high estimation of the intellectual power that is used 
up by the great English journals. One of the author's sins, 
which offended Tfte Saturday, was the terrible crime of quoting 
himself. It was asked what could be expected of an author 
who was guilty of such an offence. Nothing I suppose but 
villainy. Treasons, stratagems and spoils would, no doubt, 
come naturally to such a knave. In deference to The Saturday 
I am willing to admit all this before I repeat the outrage 
and sink self-condemned in the judgment of this journalistic 


beadle of the universe. " To-day in America " has the following 
note upon a subject which is of interest to the student of 
journalism : — 

" Mr. Bright, in a speech on the Land Bill, naively remarked that he is not 
a land owner, and therefore he is strongly on the side of the tenant. I am 
not a capitalist, and my sympathies are strongly with men who live from 
land to mouth. In England, capital dominates intellect somewhat unduly. 
.... There is nothing more sad in the history of intellect than the fact 
that the anonymous press of England has literally ground up, body and soul, 
some of the brightest and most capable men of the country. Statesmen, 
philosphers, novelists, poets, whom the world has never heard of, have gone 
down to their graves poor and unrecorded, broken on the wheel of the 
daily press. The great leader-writers know this. They know they are 
effacing themselves under the Juggernaut Car of the Anonymous in the 
interest of the proprietor. 

"In France, it is the writer who keeps the paper, not the paper that keeps the 
writer. The Americans associate names with Journals, so that powerful and 
popular writers become known there as well as the papers they serve. In 
England, the great papers absorb the writing power of the time like sponges. 
Some of the brightest and wisest brains are exhausted in the editorial pages 
of the daily newspapers, to die and be succeeded by others, without their 
names ever being known to the public. They have, however, contributed 
their bricks and mortar to the proprietory edifice of the capitalist, and the 
more giants that are effaced in the work the firmer is the golden basis of 
the newspaper-owner's property." 

The Saturday joins issue. It contends that " there is very 
little of the anonymous about the work of good men in the 
profession/' which argues a want of knowledge of the inner 
working of a great daily newspaper, The Times in particular. 
It declares the journalist to be presumptuous in believing "that 
his talent is worth more than that of the lawyer, the physicist 
or the engineer.'* which is not the question. The paragraph 
under discussion did not claim for journalists that they are 
dissatisfied ; it was merely the sympathetic statement of a fact ; 
though in a comparison as to the value of journalistic work and 
its recognition financially and othenvise it would be easy to show 
that the lawyer, the physicist and the engineer receive far greater 


rewards and advantages than the leader-writer on a daily 
newspaper. " And forsooth," exclaims The Saturday, " we are 
called upon to pity the journalist because he is anonymous.'* 
Not at all. He would be the last to claim pity, the first to 
repudiate it ; and I should retire abashed at the notion that I had 
had the audacity to put myself fonvard as his champion, though 
this is the light in which the writer in Tlie Saturday is pleased 
to regard my notes on the differences in the position which 
journalists occupy in England, America and France. The un- 
necessary harshness of The Saturday's rejoinder supplies another 
illustration of the curious anomaly of "journalism denouncing 
journalism," or of "rook eating rook," which largely obtains 
among a certain class of newspaper writers. This probably 
arises from the fact that the journalistic ranks are continually 
recruited from other professions, the small incomes of which 
are supplemented by contributions to the press ; and it is 
quite natural that some of the gentlemen to whom literature 
is only a crutch, should resent the notion of regular journalists 
arrogating any importance to their work or their class. " Jour- 
nalism of a kind," says The Saturday reviewer, "may be 
taken up by anybody who knows how to spell." He probably 
knows ; for men often put their own experiences into their 
criticisms of others ; but one would hardly have expected 
Ttie Saturday to lend itself to a spirit of detraction in regard 
to the status of journalists and journalism. It may be that 
the author of "To-day in America," rather than his premises, 
provoked the ire of the critic, and if this be so I am sorry, 
not for myself, but that the merits of an interesting subject 
should be thereby discounted in an influential journal. 


While I am writing, the mail brings me a cutting, dated 
December 27, 1881, from Bradstreets, an influential American 


journal, referring to a recent address on newspapers by Mr. 
Dudley Warner, who it seems "dissented from the assertion 
that the American newspaper is the best in the world." The 
editor, however, contends that "the American newspaper, like 
the American government, is the best in the world — for the 
American people.'* I mention this matter here chiefly for the 
sake of the bearing of what follows upon the question of 
anonymous journalism, and also in order to quote some figures 
of international interest. " Not long since," says Bradstreefs, " a 
writer in one of the English reviews lamented the melancholy 
occupation of turning over a newspaper file, and contemplating 
the vast amount of admirable writing, wit, sagacity and practical 
common sense imbedded in its pages. He did not, however, 
refer to the news columns of American newspapers, but to the 
editorial columns of the great English papers, in which appears 
nearly every day some essay or leading article worthy of a place 
among the English classics. It has been said that English 
journalism is the grave of genius, and it is often a surprise that 
such a supply of really excellent literary work should be avail- 
able when those who produce it are fully aware of the ephemeral 
character of all they write. The newspaper is bought and 
read and forgotten in an hour ; it is gone and we regret it not ; 
or, as Bunthorne would say, the dust of an earthy to-day is the 
earth of a dusty to-morrow." Thus it will be seen that the fact 
denied with curious heat by The Saturday reviewer is one 
which is pretty generally accepted ; and the question of sur- 
prise, interpolated by the American writer, may be answered 
by the desire of journalists to live, as well as lawyers, physicists 
and engineers. 

The article in question deals with a recent number of the 
journal of the Statistical Society, "which brings out the fact 
that however much England is ahead of us in the character of 
its editorials, it is very far behind in number." It is then shown 



that up to the end of 1881 the newspaper and periodical press 
of the United States numbered 11,418, whereas "the following 
table shows the number and distribution of newspapers issued 
in the United Kingdom : 



" Metropolis 
Wales . 
Ireland . 
British Isles 





"The accompanying table shows the periods of their publication 


" Daily, morning . . . ' . .88 

„ evening . 

. 78 

Five times a week 


Three times a week 


Twice a week . 


Monday . 








Friday . 




Sunday . 


Twice a month 








Irregular and miscell 





2,076 " 

The Press Guide is quoted as calling attention to the fact that 
two or three days of the week are regarded as days of publica- 
tion, and also to the large number of monthly newspapers issued 
in London — the increasing number of trade journals accounting 
in a great measure for the latter. . " The growth of the inde- 


pendent newspapers will be a great surprise to many American 
readers, and is fully set forth below : 


" Liberal ....... 594 

Conservative . 
I ndependent or neutral . 

Total . 



** We have before shown that there are 572 religious publications 
in this country.* In the United Kingdom there are but 54 which 
may be classed as religious. The publishing price of papers is 
much lower in England, where the penny press predominates, 
than here, as the following table brings out : 

** Halfpenny 
One penny . 
Three halfpence 

Twopence halfpenny 
Threepence . 
Threepence halfpenny 
Sevenpence . 
Eightpcnce . 
One shilling . 
One shilling and sixpence 
Two shillings 
Gratis . 

Total . 
















Having been led away into an aside excursion from the main 
track of The Daily Telegraphy one may as well close the episode 
with a reference to press men in England and America from the 

* The quotation is from an American paper. 



article already mentioned, seeing that it illustrates the dirterencc 
between the two : — 

"Judging from an editorial in the Pall Mall Gazette, of November 23^ 
there is still about the London press something of mystery and concealment 
that has always characterised the English press, but which is almost 
unknown in the United States. Says the Pall Mall Gazette : * Many 
circumstances have combined of late years to destroy the anonymity 
which was once the characteristic of our press, but enough of the anony- 
mous still lingers to whet the public curiosity to see and to hear the men 
who in the daily and weekly prints essay to form the judgment and guide 
the opinions of their fellows. The impersonal and authoritative "we" has 
lost much of its former force, but still the invisible wielder of the sceptre of 
the Fourth Estate is a power in the land, and when he is dragged from his 
cloudy Olympus to take his stand in the witness-box, to be seen and heard 
cf all men, the Court is usually crowded, and the law reports next day 
command more readers than the most effective leading articles or the most 
brilliant foreign correspondence.'* 

It is not improbable that the journalistic papers in Harper s 
owed their popularity to this public interest in the institution which 
so greatly influences the destiny of the nation, and in the men who 
chiefly wield its power. I would, if I dared, like to present this 
view to the critics of "Journalistic London" as a sort of lightning- 
rod protecting the author ; and also in the hope that it may 
stimulate discussion upon the question of anonymous journalism 
and the desirability of a closer fraternisation than has heretofore 
existed among "gentlemen of the press.*' 

( 131 ) 

VI f. 

History of The Daily Tele^puph —Mr. Sala and his work — Leader-writers and 
Special Correspondents — Mr. Kingston — Mr. Edward L. Lawson, Editor- 
in-Chief — Competing with The Times — Stories of News — The Sensation 
Shipwreck — Twenty-one Tons of Paper used every Day. 


The Daily Telegraph was started by Colonel Sleigh in 
1855, under the title of The Daily Telegraph and Courier. It had 
a miserable existence for some time, an infancy cradled in debt 
and difficulty. One of its principal creditors was Mr. Joseph 
Moses Levy, a printer in Shoe Lane, and also proprietor of The 
Sunday Times^ which is at the present day a thriving and pros- 
perous journal. For some years it was edited by Mr. Henry N. 
Barnett, preacher at South Place Chapel. In this latter capacity 
he succeeded Fox, while Mr. Moncure D. Conway has succeeded 
Barnett. Colonel Sleigh ran up a printing bill at Mr. Levy's office, 
and borrowed money as well. Finally, as a bad debt, Mr. Levy 
took over the paper, which was pronounced by the shrewdest 
newspaper people to be the worst payment he could receive. 
Mr. George Augustus Sala joined The Telegraph about this time. 
Soon afterwards Mr. Thornton Hunt was appointed chief of the 
staff Mr. Edwin Arnold accepted a post as leader-writer. The 
present Mr. Edward L. Lawson (he took the name of Lawson 

K 2 


by the desire of his uncle, Lionel Lawson, who, at the same time, 
made a handsome settlement on his two sons) was then com- 
pleting his apprenticeship in his father's office. The entire Levy 
family, bent their backs to the hard work of dragging The 
Telegraph out of the slough of despond in which Colonel Sleigh 
had left it. Success crowned their perseverance and energy. 
They were apt as they were industrious, showing a surprising 

I I'hulo^raphed by Elliott and Fry, 55 Baker fitrect, Londun.J 

capacity for journalistic work, and a certain administrative pre- 
science, which is spoken of among those who thoroughly know 
the history of The Telegraph with great admiration. Mr. George 
Augustus Sala has done much towards popularising The 
Telegraph. His graphic and industrious pen has produced for it 
miles of manuscript upon every conceivable subject under 
the sun. He has written for it in almost all lands, and 
about almost all countries. With "the wages of an am- 


bassador and the treatment of a gentleman," he has travelled for 
it to and from the uttermost parts of the earth, describing 
battles, festivals, royal marriages and state funerals ; and always 
describing them with point and brilliancy. In addition to his 
correspondence, he has held a foremost place among the leader- 
writers of the paper, and his social articles have helped to give 
The Telegraph an individuality which has greatly contributed 
to its success. Mr. Sala is so well known, not only as a 
journalist, but as a writer of books and a public speaker, that it 
is hardly necessary to do more than mention his connection with 
T/te Telegraph, A friend and contemporary of Dickens and 
Thackeray, he is still as busy as ever he was, and his work 
possesses all the vitality and verve which belong to " Twice 
Round the Clock," "The Seven Sons of Mammon," and to his 
early letters from the Continent and from America. If Mr. Sala 
had not given himself up to journalism, he would have enriched 
the permanent literature of his country. His " Life of Hogarth," 
written for Thackeray in The Cornhill, is unsurpassed in modern 
art biography. But his journalistic life has been of national value. 
He has hit a good many shams on the head, and he has con- 
tributed to the general knowledge a fund of curious and interesting 
information, which future historians will find as valuable in facts 
as in suggestions. 

Mr. Sala began life as an engraver. His training in that pro- 
fession has, no doubt, influenced his caligraphy. His manuscript 
is the delight of printers. It is as clear and legible as the writer's 
oracular utterances, when called upon to speak at a public 
dinner, or address a minister in his private room. The gift of 
oratory is either denied to men of letters as a rule, or they fail as 
speakers because they do not practise the art of thinking on their 
legs. But Mr. Sala is not only a delightful conversationalist ; 
he is an orator. Douglas Jcrrold, who said so many bright 
and witty things at table, could say nothing when elevated 


a few feet above it. He once broke down ignominiously in 
response to a toast. Mr. Sala seems to be just as much at home 
on his legs as at his desk. A year or two ago, when a deputation 
of literary men and women waited upon Mr. Disraeli to discuss 
the unsatisfactory condition of the law of copyright, Mr. Sala, at 
five minutes* notice, delivered an address upon the status of 
journalism which not only drew forth the warm applause of a 
critical deputation, but evidently aroused Mr. Disraeli, who had 
previously sat before the deputation with a cold, expressionless 
countenance, a mask behind which the owner had possibly retired 
to think over some question of state policy. It was left to Mr. 
Sala to bring back the mind belonging to the mask, and the mind 
looked out of two eloquent eyes, and smiled approvingly. 


One of the principal writers on The Daily Telegraph is Mr. 
George Hooper, a competent critic of military affairs, as w^ell 
as an able political controversialist, who was formerly associated 
with Mr. George Henry Lewes and other distinguished men on 
The Leader^ and was for a time editor of The Bombay Gazette, 
Among other members of the staff of " leader-writers '* may also 
be mentioned Mr. J. Herbert Stack, one of the brightest jour- 
nalists of his time among the writers of The Saturday Revinv ; 
Mr. David Anderson, a gentleman who has the reputation of 
being one of the best "all-round" men on the press; the Hon. 
Francis Lawley, brother of Lord Wenlock, formerly private secre- 
tary to Mr. Gladstone, who writes on many themes, but is most 
noted for his articles on turf and other sporting subjects ; and 
Mr. H. F. Lester (a kinsman of Mr. Arnold), who though very 
young has already made his mark in journalism, and has written 
.some capital political skits in Punch. The City editor is Mr. 
Alexander Harper, whose authority on financial matters stands 


as high as his character for integrity and straightforwardness. 
Mr. William Beatty Kingston, who was for many years The 
Telegraph's resident correspondent in Berlin, has, since he quar- 
relled with Prince Bismarck, and withdrew from the German 
capital, occupied himself chiefly in writing leading articles on 
foreign and social topics. Many of the capital little stories to be 
found in what are called the sub-leaders of The Telegraph are from 
his pen. Mr. Kingston is a singularly accomplished man, speaking 
many foreign languages as fluently as his own tongue, and being, 
among other things, perhaps the best amateur pianist in Europe. 
Mr. J. Drew Gay joined The Telegraph some ten years ago in a 
subordinate capacity, but rose rapidly to a prominent position on 
the staff". He has distinguished himself as a special correspon- 
dent in India, Turkey and Canada. Whenever there is work 
in hand requiring especial daring and enterprise, Mr. Gay 
is usually the man selected for the task. The Paris correspon- 
dence is ably conducted by Mr. Campbell Clarke, a son-in-law of 
Mr. Levy; and the Vienna wire is "worked" by Mr. Lavino, 
who is noted for the accuracy of his political ** tips." 

The editorial organisation of The Daily Telegraph is somewhat 
peculiar, but it is found to work excellently. The supreme 
editor of the paper is, and has been for at least twenty years, 
Mr. E. L. Lawson. His ability is not generally known, but 
those who have been in the habit of working with him bear 
testimony to the fact that he possesses that very rare gift, the 
editorial faculty, in a high degree. He is singularly endowed 
with what is called the journalistic instinct, which has been 
described as " a sort of genius prompting a man to do exactly 
the right thing at the right time." While not pretending to the 
higher attainments of scholarship, Mr. Edward Lawson is a well- 
educated man, having received his training chiefly at the London 
University ; he has written many able articles in The Tele- 
graph ; but it is rather in directing the pens of others than by 


his own that he is distinguished among his colleagues. Many a 
leader remarkable for its grasp and vigour is said to have owed 
its " backbone " to his inspiration. As a young man Edward 
Lawson acquired a knowledge of newspaper- work down to its 
minutest details. He was regularly taught the business of type- 
setting in his father*s office. He understands the mechanical 
branches of journalism as thoroughly as its higher departments. 
Of late Mr. Lawson has not taken an active part in the editorial 
direction of The Telegraph, In his absence Mr. Edwin Arnold 
is editor-in-chief, and with him is associated Mr. J. M. Le Sage 
(formerly special correspondent and news manager of the paper), 
who takes the supreme command at night, assisted by Mr. E. J. 
Goodman, whose especial business it is to edit the leading 
articles for tone and policy, a function formerly discharged 
in succession by Mr. Thornton Hunt, Mr. Arnold, Mr. Harper 
and Mr. Hooper. Mr. Le Sage is a thoroughly practical 
journalist. Since his appointment to his new position some' 
notable feats in the way of obtaining important and exclusive 
intelligence have been achieved. Mr. E. J. Goodman was trained 
in the Provinces. His first leading position on the press was in 
connection with Tlie Yorkshire Post, He came to London to 
write the daily editorial notes for The Circle^ a venture of Mr. 
Saunders and a company. The conductors of The Telegraph 
noticed Mr. Goodman's careful work in The Circle, and invited 
him to join their staff, which he did. 


Mr. Le Sage tells the following story of "news competition," 
which will give the general reader an idea of the administrative 
skill invoked by the difficulties of despatching news. It is easier 
to write an account of a battle than to send it home. Mr. 
Sala rarely telegraphed his correspondence. His letters were 


always something more than news. " Immediately after the 
siege of Paris," says the night editor of T/ie Telegraph, " I went 
in, and was there during the Commune. The great thing I 
wanted to play for was the entry of the Germans. The Times^ I 
learned, had a special train to Boulogne to be met by a special 
steamer for Folkestone, whence a special train was to convey its 
representative to London. In competition I was slightly handi- 
capped, as The Telegraph goes to press earlier than The Times. 
I got a special to Lille. Tlie Times correspondent had to forward 
his dispatches at three in the afternoon, and the grand thing was 
to get off my news an hour later. It was all-important to know 
if any disturbance took place, as it was feared that some foolish 
persons might fire upon the Germans, when there would, no doubt, 
have been serious trouble. At twelve o'clock in the day I got off 
news of all the preparations of the Germans for being reviewed. 
Everything was arranged for the entry, and for the review outside 
Paris. All this we published at twelve o'clock at night. I got 
a special at four o'clock from Paris, which reached Lille at 10.30 ; 
I was thus enabled to telegraph through-news an hour later, 
when the Germans had come down the Champs Elysees, and 
were bivouacking in the Place de la Concord." 

Another story of Telegraph enterprise is worth relating. One 
night, very late, a shabby-looking stranger presented himself at 
the otece, saying that he had some very important news. He 
was taken up to the manager, who asked him what he had to 
tell. He refused, however, to give any hint as to his informa- 
tion until he had made a bargain on the subject of remuneration. 
The sum to be paid him having been settled, he then gave 
particulars of a terrible shipwreck, the news of which afterwards 
made a great sensation. Before, going away, the stranger 
stipulated that his cab-fare should be paid. " Oh, certainly," said 
the manager, and he then sent a messenger down to pay the 
cabman. The driver on being asked what was his fare said. 


" Well, I drove the gentleman from the London Docks, and then 
we went and waited at The Standard^ and then at Tlie Daily 
News, I want'* so much. Thus it leaked out that the news- 
laden stranger had already been to two of the Telegraphs 
contemporaries and had actually been sent away as an impostor. 
Tlie Telegraph next morning had an exclusive report of a 
*' sensational shipwreck." 

The proprietors of The Telegraph never spare any expense 
when important news is to be obtained. But many a piece 
of valuable information has been secured at much less cost 
than is generally supposed. One remarkable instance of this 
may be mentioned. The Telegraph once collected details of an 
intensely interesting public matter (we are not at liberty to 
indicate its exact nature), and these occupied several columns of 
its space. It was rumoured that hundreds of pounds had been 
paid for this intelligence. As a matter of fact the entire extra 
expense connected with the enterprise was three shillings and 
sixpence — i.e, half a crown for a cab and a shilling for a 
telegram ! 

The sub-editors' department is now presided over by Mr. 
Edward O'Farrell, an able and experienced journalist, formerly 
connected with the Dublin press. He succeeded in this capacity 
Mr. John EUerthorpe, who now has the post of foreign editor. 

One of the chief members of the literary staff, as apart from 
the leading columns, is Mr. Godfrey Wordsworth Turner, who 
has the reputation among his fellows of writing singularly exact 
English. His department is what is known as *' descriptive 
reporting," and he is great at shows, exhibitions and social 
gatherings of all sorts. He is also the author of a large part of the 
** Book Market," the heading under which The Telegraph places 
its literary reviews. Mr. Turner is occasionally seen in pages 
outside The Telegraph as the author of graceful verse and 
literary sketches. In point of style Mr. Turner has his equal 


in Mr. Joseph Bennett, the musical critic of the paper, and who 
occasionally writes leaders and descriptive sketches. Many of 
the papers by " One of the Crowd " are attributed to the pen of 
Mr. James Greenwood, and the author of the wonderfully graphic 
sketches of nautical life by "A Seafarer" is Mr. Clark Russell, 
who wrote the "Wreck of the Grosvenor" and is a son of Mr. 
Henry Russell, author of " To the West," " A Life on the Ocean 
Wave," "The Ship on Fire," and other popular songs. Mr. 
David Anderson has already been mentioned. It may be added 


I Pliutograjilied liy iho Limdon Slsieoscopic Compaiiy.] 

that he is almost as prolific a leader-writer as Mr. Sala himself. 
He is the author of many of the political and social " editorials." 
Mr. Anderson, like Sala, began life as an engraver. A miscella- 
neous writer until three years ago, he contributed to the leading 
serials and ncw.spaper.-i of the day ; but his pen is now almost 
wholly engaged upon The Telegraph, and he invariably writes 
the first leader in the cditoral page. 

Mr. Clement Scott, editor of The Theatre, is the chief dramatic 



critic, and may also be mentioned as one of the general staff of 
writers on miscellaneous subjects. He contributed to Tlie Tele- 
graph that remarkable sketch, "A Ruined Home," which created 
a sensation throughout England two years ago. It was the true 
story of a criminal trial of great dramatic interest A false friend, 
a ruined girl, a father's vengeance, a happy home destroyed, a 
brave man wrongfully suffering — these were the incidents. Mr. 
Scott held the attention of Great Britain for a whole week on 
this theme, which he treated with eloquent force and dramatic 
grip. Mr. E. L. Blanchard writes some of the " first night " 
notices of theatres in Tlie Telegraph, Dr. W. H. Russell left The 
Times and joined Mr. Lawson's staff on the outbreak of the 
Zulu war. " The Coming Man," by Mr. Charles Reade, appeared 
in Tlie Telegraph almost conjojntly with its publication in Harper's 
Weekly, The daily circulation of Tlie Telegraphy recently certi- 
fied by public accountants, averages over 260,000. The weight 
of paper used each morning is twenty-one tons, which, laid out 
in one long line, would reach two hundred and sixty miles. 

( 141 ) 


The Oldest of the Cheap Dailies — Mr. Mudford and his Policy — American 
News — A Notable Career — A Remarkable Will — The Standard Ma- 
chinery — Thirty-six Thousand Miles of Standards — The Editorial and 
General Staff — History of the Property — Mr. Baldwin and Mr. John- 
stone — Character of the late Proprietor — A Hard Battle Well Fought. 


The Standard occupies a unique position in London jour- 
nalism. The oldest of the cheap dailies, it is perhaps the most in- 
dependent of party papers. Though The Telegraph goes with the 
Conservatives in foreign politics and reflects the Orientalism of 
its chief and Lord Beaconsfield, it claims to be Liberal in regard 
to domestic legislation. It is a Radical newspaper, with Tory pre- 
dilections for the jealous preservation of British imperial power. 
Tlie Standard has always been Conservative. Some years ago 
its political lines were so simple and distinct that it was 
hardly necessary to read its comments on the Parliamentary 
debates or public speeches of the time. You could always tell 
beforehand what The Standard would say. Whatever they did 
or said, the Liberals would be all wrong, the Conservatives all 
right. Nothing that was good could come from one party, nothing 
that was bad from the other. There was a port-wine flavour 
in the solid rhetoric of its editorial pages, and a sort of tie-wig- 


and-bucklcs aspect about the paper's {general appearance. It 
idealised the frank stupidity of county gentlemen, and represented 
the cultured opinions of peers of the realm. It was national to 
the backbone. Seeking its head-quarters, you might have ex- 
pected to find the royal banner flying over a castellated bureau, 
and a dragoon officiating as hall porter. Do not let it be pre- 
sumed that these suggestions are put forward as points for ridi- 
cule. It was just that bull -dog element indicated in the charac- 
ter of the old Standard that made P2ngland feared and respected 
of her enemies, and it is that substratum of Tory tradition which 
to-day gives backbone to her constitution. The Standard, still 
national, still loyal to the throne, is in these days animated with 
the broader views and increased toleration of a new era, which 
owes much of its education to cheap newspapers. Though still 
maintaining sympathetic relations with the Conservatives, The 
Standard recognises an allegiance that is above party, namely, 
its responsibility to the public. Neither the mouth-piece of a 
minister, nor the mere organ of a government, it is the exponent 
of Conservative principles, which cover a far wider range of polity 
than is usually allotted to them. Generally imbued with the 
conviction that the political platform of Lord Beaconsfield 
represents the best lines on which to administer English affairs, 
The Standard is against the Liberals, but it has cast off the old 
shell of Tory intolerance which once retarded its prosperity and 
neutralised its influence. 

The improvement in the tone and character of The Standard 
dates chiefly from the day when the present editor, Mr. Mudford, 
entered upon autocratic charge of the journal, under the some- 
what remarkable will of Mr. Johnstone. The bound which it has 
taken in public estimation and influence is ample indorsement of 
the wisdom of Mr. Mudford's policy. Coupled with the infusion 
of liberal ideas into the editorial method of discussing public 
affairs, the administration of the various departments has been 


** widened out," and increased enterprise has been shown in the 
collection of news. Upon the solid foundation of Tory concrete 
Mr. Mudford is building up an institution that reflects the spirit 
of the age. There is no European capital where The Standard 
is not represented by its own correspondent. No expense is 
spared in transmission of news or opinions. Mr. Mudford paid 
£Zqo for one cable dispatch during the Afghan war. His news 
during the war in the Transvaal was telegraphed regardless of 
the eight shillings a word which he paid for it. One of the recent 
extensions of his news department is that of a daily American 
service' of cables. Hitherto The Times was the only journal which 
had a regular cable correspondent (at Philadelphia) in the United 
States, and The Times dispatches were often singularly meagre. 
It was one of the complaints of Americans in England that while 
the London newspapers published daily reports from all the great 
capitals of the Old World, they almost ignored the doings of 
the New. Washington keeps clear of European politics, and is, 
happily for America, not a factor in the burning questions that 
agitate England in the East. For these reasons American news 
had not been hitherto regarded as especially interesting to English 
readers. But Mr. Mudford considers the time has arrived when 
the vast commercial interests that unite the people of Great 
Britain and the United States demand a daily exhibition in a 
London morning paper. He has therefore added a new wire to his 
telegraphic bureau, and The Standard is now in direct communi- 
cation with New York, and through New York with all the cities 
of the Republic. Nothing is more calculated to develop the inter- 
national enterprise and resources of the two great English-speak- 
ing peoples than having the " bull's-eye " of the press constantly 
turned upon their current history. For obvious reasons it would 
seem out of place in this sketch to describe my own share in 
this new feature of The Standard^ but I have received so many 
letters of inquiry and notes of congratulation in regard to the 


cable dispatches preceding the shooting of General Garfield, the 
report of the calamity, ^nd the events immediately following 
it, that I do not think it will be outstepping the due bounds of 
modesty to print in a foot-note a couple of references to last 
year's Transatlantic cables out of many that appeared in the 
press of America and England.* 

* ** American travellers in Europe know what it is to take up a London daily paper 
and find the news of the United States compressed into a few lines, and packed away 
in an obscure comer. This Transatlantic irritation is to be terminated by the enter- 
prise of Mr. Mudford, the broad-minded editor of The Standard. The first New 
York cable correspondent arrived in the Empire City on Monday, commissioned to 
establish an independent daily service of news and opinion between New York and 
London. Mr. Joseph Hatton, the well-known London correspondent of The Nrw 
York Timest has been entrusted with this important international work. He sent his 
first cable on Monday. It was a sketch of the Panama Canal business from an 
American point of view, and is worth recording as the pioneer cable of a new era of 
intelligence in the great London newspapers. The Standard is wise in making its 

P latest experiment under the auspices of Mr. Joseph Hatton, who has special facilities 

for his work here, and hosts of friends to help him. He hopes to complete his 
organisation in a few weeks, returning to his London duties for The Times in 
August We congratulate America upon this new recognition of her progress. The 
Standard will add a very large amount to its yearly expenses by the addition to its 

I other features of these special cables from the United States." — Harper's Weekly 

(New York), June 25, 1881. — ** Within the last week or two we have had con- 
spicuous examples of the energy which our daily papers display on notable occasions. 
The Daily Telegraph has done wonders in the Lelroy business in supplying the 

\ public with the fullest possible information on a subject in which they feel an intense 

I interest. It must be admitted, however, that The Standard beat all its con- 

temporaries in its accounts of the attack on President Garfield. That journal was 
exceptionally fortunate. It so happened that Mr. Joseph Hatton, a gentleman whose 

\ energy and ability as a journalist is quite American in its character, had gone out 

to the States on various literary missions, and among the rest to * work the wires * 
for The Standard, He could not have gone at a more opportune moment, and 
hence the mass of interesting anecdotal and incidental matter which our contem- 

• porary was able to secure on the day after the attempt. Mr. Hatton, I understand, 

I returns to England early in August, to resume his special work on The New York 

Times.'*^Liverpool Mail {EnglsLnd), July 16, 188 1. —The dispatch to The Standard 
describing the fatal attack on President Garfield was over five columns in extent and 
was the longest message ever sent through the cable. The intelligence concerning the 
first few exciting days of the affair , sent through the Direct United States Cable Com- 

' puiy, could not have cost The Standard less than ;^i,coo for transmission fees alone. 


Mr. Mudford is a remarkable man. His story is singular and 
somewhat romantic. He comes from a literary and cultured stock. 
His father was for some years in early life private secretary to 
the Duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria. The secretary's 
love of letters induced him to terminate a connection that had in 
it great probabilities, and devote himself to literary work. He 

IPhiitt^raplied hy A:l. Braur and Co., Paris.) 

contributed much light and agreeable matter to Blackwood's 
Magazine in its best days. In the zenith of its popularity he 
edited T/ie Courier, and he succeeded Theodore Hook on yohn 
Bull. Preferring a journalistic career to any other, young 
Mudford made his way to a good position on The Standard. 
Independent as he was industrious, he could always be relied 
on for any work he undertook. His "copy" was prompt to 



time, and worthy of the occasion, but he never did more than 
was necessary. 

Conscientious to a fault, he was business-like in respect to ful- 
filling his strict duty and earning his salary. Said one of his 
colleagues to me : " I believe that if Mudford had gone into the 
City on some specific work, and had seen St. Paul's on fire as he 
returned to the oflftce, he would not have mentioned it ; the cir- 
cumstance would not have been within the pale of the business 
upon which he was engaged, and he made it a rule not to meddle 
with the affairs of other people." He never sought to thrust him- 
self upon the special notice of his chiefs or the public. An easy 
and genial independence of character made his individuality felt 
in whatever he did. Though he was never on what might be 
called intimate terms with Mr. Johnstone, the first proprietor of 
the paper when it became a morning journal, that gentleman had 
evidently formed the very highest estimate of his ability, his 
honesty and his power. When Mr. Johnstone was laid up with 
an illness that eventually caused his death, he sent for Mudford, 
and, to the young journalist's surprise, offered him the editor- 
.ship, which he accepted. He resigned the position almost as 
soon as he had taken up its duties ; and on these grounds. An 
article had appeared in Tlic Standard discussing an action at law 
of great public interest. The defendant in the suit regarded the 
editorial observations as libellous, and demanded a public apology. 
Mr. Mudford contended that the article was not libellous, and 
even if it were the paper ought to contest the question. Mr. 
Johnstone, 'under the advice of his solicitor, wished to apologise, 
and sent to his editor a sketch of what he thought 7 lie Standard 
should say in the way of reparation. At the same time he sub- 
mitted it to the editorial revision of Mr. Mudford, who, very 
properly acknowledging the right of supreme control in a pro- 
prietor upon such a question, gave way ; but, at the same time, he 
felt that as editor he was accountable to the public for the pro- 


prictor's acts, and as he disagreed with the course Mr. Johnstone 
desired the paper to take, he resigned. He first, however, 
published the apology, and on its appearance gave up his place. 
Appealed to by Mr. Johnstone, who was of a nervous disposition 
and easily alarmed by threats of libel suits, he refused during 
several days of correspondence and negotiation to withdraw his 
resignation, but ultimately did so. Soon aften^'ards Mr. John- 
stone died, and by a codicil to his will he appointed Mr. Mudford 
editor for life, or for as long a period as he was disposed to hold 
the appointment, subject to no conditions whatever as to the 
policy of the paper, its management or administration ; and he 
also made him chief trustee and executor of his will (sworn 
under i^500,0CK)) which conferred ui)on him this great responsi- 
bility and power. 

It is evidence of Johnstone's discernment, as well as a tribute to 
the editor's high character and journalistic capacity, that Mr. 
Mudford's advancement has given complete satisfaction to the 
staff, while the improvement in the paper, from every point of 
view, is generally acknowledged amongst journalists, by Con- 
servatives as well as Liberals, and by the public at large. 

Mr. Mudford is a young man. Of medium height, he is 
broad-chested and sturdy in build, suggesting in his manner 
and conversation the "calm grip" of English thought and 
character. His hair is black, and he does not shave. Dark 
intelligent eyes, and a mouth and jaw indicating strength of 
will, he impresses you at first sight as a man of points. To 
a genial manner he adds the suavity of a travelled English- 
man, and he is destined to leave his mark, strong and clear, 
on the history of the London press. 

The offices of The Standard are in Shoe Lane, Fleet Street. 
They are admirably appointed. The paper is printed on eight 
machines, seven of which run at the rate of 14,000 per hour. 
There are also six machines in reserve, in another building, and 

L 2 


a separate fount of type, so that if any accident happened to the 
offices in St. Bride Street, the whole paper could be set up and 
printed in Shoe Lane at the rate of 12,000 copies, net, per hour. 
The eighth machine prints and cuts the sheet, places the two 
halves together, and folds the sheet, which is delivered in shoots 
ready for the wrapper for the post, running at the rate of 12,500 
per hour, netting 10,500 to 1 1,000 copies. The number of hands 
employed on the morning edition is sixty-three : on the evening 
edition, twenty-six — a total of eighty-nine. The forms for the 
morning edition go down to the foundry at intervals com- 
mencing from 12 o'clock, midnight ; the last form, with the latest 
Parliamentary or other important intelligence, being received in 
the foundry at 2.30 to 3 o'clock. The eight plates ^re all pro- 
duced and handed to the machine-room in thirty-three minutes. 
TJie Evening Standard is published in four separate editions, the 
number of plates that are required var>^ing according to the news 
received. The whole Morning Standard is printed in one hour 
and fifty minutes, and the Evening Standard second edition in 
fifteen minutes, the third edition in thirty minutes, fourth edition 
in twenty minutes, and the special edition in forty-five minutes. 

The duplicate plant of machinery, for use in case of accident 
by fire or otherwise, is being replaced at the present time 
by machinery made and patented by Mr. Joseph Foster, of 
Preston, Lancashire. The new machine is called the " Standard 
Web Printing Machine," and is only twelve feet six inches 
long, occupying half as much space as the other web 
machines. Its height is five feet six inches, and the width 
being the same as the other machines, plates cast for the Hoe 
machines will fit on the new machines as well. The collecting 
motion of these new machines is arranged by a " tape race " 
without either guides or switches, and flies six sheets at one time 
and seven at another, which repeated is a London quire, viz. 
twenty-six. and then the fly-board moves in such a manner as to 


separate each quire. These machines are so constructed as to 
print 14,500 per hour, netting 12,500 copies, and do not require 
so much steam-power for working as the other web machines, 
the friction of the machinery being less. The paper used on 
either plant of machinery is prepared on wetting machines, 
invented and patented by the firm, two machines being placed 
in each building. The steam-power is a pair of 45-horse- 
power engines in each building, and likewise two 60-horse-power 
boilers of the multitubular type for auxiliary machinery in the 
bill-room, foundry, and for working the lifts and machinery in 
the engineer's shop, where all repairs are carried out. The 
amount of paper used during the year 1880 for The Morning 
Standard vfdiS 3,412 tons, equal to a length of 36,609 miles, and 
for The Evening Standard 865 tons, equal to a length of 13,377 
miles, the two quantities making a total of 4,277 tons, or 49,986 
miles of paper, an average of over thirteen tons, or 160 miles, 
per day. 


The staff of The Standard cowers a broad field of intellectuality 
and skill. Its leader-writers include Colonel Brackenbury, who 
has had a brilliant career in the regular army, and was The 
Times correspondent in the field during several important 
campaigns. Under the editorship of Captain Hamber, it is not 
too much to say that Mr. Henry Brackenbury, in " The Diary of 
the War," during three months predicted, to a day, all the 
German successes in the Franco-German war. Other con- 
tributors to the editorial pages include, Mr. Sutherland Edwards ; 
Mr. T. H. Escott, author of " England : its People, Polity, and 
Pursuits"; Mr. Alfred Austin, the well-known poet and critic; 
Mr. D. Boulger, Mr. ^T. E. Kebbel, Mr. Percy Greg, Mr. 
Saville Clarke, Dr. Hyndman and Miss Cobbe. Mr. Clarke 
is the proprietor of The Court Circular, a contributor to Punch, 


and, as an instance of provincial enterprise, it may be stated that 
he is the dramatic correspondent of The Scotsman, which publishes 
a special telegraphic account of the first performances in London 
of all new plays. The best known war correspondents regularly 
associated with the paper are Mr. A. Cameron (who did dis- 
tinguished service in the Transvaal), Mr. Frederick Boyle 
and Mr. G. A. Henty. Mr. Boyle is the author of several 
entertaining works of travel, notably concerning Borneo, which 
he visited some years ago. Many of his short stories have 
appeared in All the Year Round. Mr. Henty is becoming as 
famous in England for his interesting and wholesome books 
for boys as Colonel Knox is in the United States. His ex- 
periences abroad and at home stand him in good stead when 
writing adventures for the young readers of The Union Jack, 
of which he is the editor. Mr. Henty has represented The 
Standard in most of the great wars of our time. His latest ex- 
perience was in Ashantee. Of the foreign correspondents the 
most notable is Dr. Abel, who formerly represented The Times 
in Berlin. The other gentlemen on this section of the staff are 
Dr. Waldeck, Mr. Hely Bowe, Mr. J. Baddely, Mr. F. J. Scuda- 
more, C.B., Mr. Laffan, and Mr. E. A. Bradford of The New 
York Times, who is the cable correspondent in New York. Mr. 
James Mould has been the chief representative of the paper 
in the Gallery of the House of Commons since the day Mr. 
Johnstone bought The Standard, and has had under his direc- 
tion there his present chief, Mr. Mudford, and many other 
well-known journalists. It is generally acknowledged by those 
who know the history of the paper that Mr. Mould's devoted 
services have done much to promote its success. 

Though Mr. Mudford is, by the terms of Mr. Johnstone's 
will, manager as well as editor, he practically leaves the work of 
management to his able lieutenant, Mr. Walter Wood, who has 
been connected with the paper for eighteen years, and who en- 


joyed the absolute confidence of Mr. Johnstone, as he does of his 
friend the present director. The department of dramatic and 
musical criticism is well and impartially served by Mr. A. E. T. 
Watson, editor of The Sporting and Dramatic News, and author 
of a popular volume of hunting sketches ; and Mr. Desmond 
Ryan, '* the cultured son of a cultured critic," as he is justly 
described by a well-known journalist, who calls attention to the 
accidental omission of Mr. Ryan's name in Harper's. Altogether 
The Standard has in its service five hundred employes, and pays 
;^ 1,500 a week in salaries alone. 

The history of the paper may be briefly told. It was started 
as an evening journal in 1827, with ;^ 15,000, to oppose Catholic 
emancipation. Dr. Giffard, a barrister (father of Sir H. Giffard), 
was its first editor. The Standard is, however, so mixed up with 
The Morning Herald, and so generally regarded as its offspring, 
that it will be convenient to deal at the outset with Tlie Herald^ 
which first appeared in 1780. The Rev. Henry Bate was its 
originator. He had edited The Morning Post, and when he 
left that journal he started The Herald in opposition to it. Mr. 
Bate fought his way politically to a baronetcy, dying, in 1824, 
at Cheltenham, Sir Henry Bate Dudley. He was succeeded on 
The Herald by Mr. Alexander Chalmers. In 1786, Mr. Pitt, 
while he was Prime Minister, sued The Hef'ald for libel. The 
paper had charged him with gambling in the funds. He asked 
for ;^ 10,000 damages. The jury before whom the case was 
tried awarded him ;£" 150. One of the most attractive features of 
The Herald in the old days was the excellence oif its police 
reports, ** the humour of the courts " being more particularly de- 
veloped. A selection of the most amusing cases was reprinted 
in a volume under the title of '* Mornings at Bow Street," and 
illustrated by George Cruikshank. TIte Herald was always 
conducted with considerable vigour. Its proprietors fought 
many libel suits in the public interest. In 1843, Mr. Baldwin, 


proprietor of Tlie Standard (which was still only an evening 
paper) purchased the paper, and soon afterwards advanced the 
honorarium of ;^3 3^. for a leading article of a column to £^ ^s, 
and largely extended his literary engagements in other direc- 
tions. He bought a steamer to meet the Indian mails. But 
the period of inflation known as " the railway mania " coming 
to an end, the large revenues of TJte Herald decreased, 
and eventually Mr. Baldwin had to meet his creditors and 
dispose of his property. Mr. Johnstone bought it. Mr. John 
Maxwell, the publisher, was for a time Mr. Johnstone's partner 
in the enterprise. He advised Mr. Johnstone in regard to the 
purchase of the paper and its management. At this period 
Mr. Pritchard edited it. Mr. Maxwell retired early from the 
turmoil of newspaper work, established his publishing business, 
married Miss Braddon, founded Belgravia, and now rests on his 
laurels at Lichfield House, Richmond, where he and his amiable 
and accomplished wife keep open house, and are famous for 
their unostentatious hospitality. 

In 1858, Mr. Johnstone practically sacrificed The Herald^ and 
brought out The Standard at a penny, morning and evening. 
On the 31st of December, 1869, The Herald \\2iS allowed to die. 
The Evening Standard in its present form appeared on the first 
of January, 1870, under the editorship of Mr. Charles Williams, 
and during the year the circulation more than once reached 
100,000 copies in an evening. It may be mentioned in passing 
that Mr. Williams, during the Russo-Turkish war, did excellent 
service in the field as correspondent of T lie Morning Advertiser^ 
and a combination of provincial journals, and that recently he 
has accepted the editorship of a new enterprise in Conservative 
journalism. The livening Neivs. Mr. Johnstone was a Con- 
servative by conviction, and he conducted 7 he Stajidard in the 
interest of the party with a thorough devotion to the cause. It 
was recorded of him in The Standard^ when he died, that " so 


staunch was he to his principles thnt — with what those who did 
not know him will, perhaps, regard as Quixotic chivalry — he 
absolutely opposed the reduction of the paper duty, though no 
one understood more thoroughly than he how entirely the success 
of this liberal measure would aid his special interests. Through 
good and evil report, with many peculiarly harassing difficulties 
to overcome, and with the scantiest assistance from many 
quarters to which he might fairly have looked for support, Mr. 

IPholugraphed by W. B ratine 

Johnstone carried out the work he had set himself to accomplish, 
and happily lived to see The Standard in the full tide of that 
success which it had been the aim of his life to secure for it, 
Mr. Johnstone's private character can hardly be spoken of 
impartially by his friends in a journal which remains in posses- 
sion of his family, but affectionate remembrances of him will 
long be kept green in the memories of the many who have the 
best cause to know how just were his dealings and how generous 
his impulses. It was a manly, strenuous, energetic and influential 


life that came to a close at Hooley House." To this earnest 
eulogium one might fairly add that, though since Mr. John- 
stone's death The Standard has taken another great stride 
fon^ard, " the chief credit " (to quote Mr. Mudford's own words 
to me on the subject), "nevertheless, attaches to the late 
proprietor, who laid broad and deep the foundation of a property 
the full development of which he was not permitted to see or 
enjoy. If his life had been extended another ten or fifteen 
years, he would have reaped what he sowed to the fullest extent 
— socially, politically and financially." 

( 155 ) 




Captain H amber and The Standard — The Editors of The Morning Ad- 
vertiser — The Daily Chronicle — The Pall Mall and The St. Jameses 
Gazette — Mr. Frederick Greenwood and Mr. John Morley — The Echo — 
Mr. Albert Grant — The Hour — Mr. Passmore Edwards, M.P. — Adven- 
tures of an Editor — Baron Merle's Paragraphic Death and Resurrection 
— An Eccentric Sub-Editor — The Mystery of Howard Street. 


The other London dailies are T/ie Morning Posty The Morning 
Advertiser and The Daily Chronicle, The first mentioned 
is the oldest of all. In presence of its new departure from 
an exclusive fashionable journal to a popular penny paper, I 
propose to consider it in my final sketch. The career of its 
chief, Sir Algernon Borthwick, is a remarkable one. An outline 
of it as a companion-picture to that of Mr. Edward Lloyd, the 
father of the cheap press, will supply the reader with some in- 
teresting journalistic contrasts. The Morning Advertiser is the 
property and organ of the Licensed Victuallers' Association. This 
powerful society started it in 1794, and The Advertiser's success 
was insured from the first, each member being pledged to support 
it by subscriptions and advertisements. Its platform does not 
allow an editor much margin for enterprise or journalistic skill, 
but the paper is thoughtfully and well conducted by Captain 
Hanibcr, who was for many years the editor oCThe Standard, 


During his direction of this last-mentioned journal he introduced 
the " Manhattan " letters, which created a great deal of attention 
at the time of the American war. " Manhattan '* was a rabid 
supporter of the South, but he was one of those brilliant writers 
who command the attention of both friends and foes, and his 
contributions often sent up the circulation of The Standard as 
much as 20,000 a day. The best-known editor of Tlie Adver- 
tiser was Mr. James Grant, whose policy was a lugubrious com- 
bination of beer and religion. He was in some respects a capable, 
and in all respects an honest man ; withal, industrious and per- 
sistent in his work. He wrote and adapted several books, and 
was succeeded on his retirement by Colonel Richards, whose 
chief ambition was to be known as the originator of the volun- 
teer army. His novel, " So Very Human," was alleged to contain 
a libel, and he was bound in legal penalties not to circulate it. 
There was a good deal of merit in his tragedy of " Crom- 
well,'* which was produced at the Queen's Theatre. Colonel 
Richards was what is called an accomplished man, and was 
popular with his staff and with his Victuallers. Captain Ham- 
ber is a gentleman of stronger character than his three pre- 
decessors. He did lasting work on The Standard ; he has 
raised the character and influence of The Advertiser. When he 
left The Standard he accepted the direction of Mr. Morier 
Evans's unfortunate speculation. The Hour, which, like the 
adventurous Day^ was full of promise, but did not possess the 
** staying powers " that only capital can insure. Mr. Evans was 
the City editor of The Standard, In the early days of his 
connection with the paper, no one worked harder in the pro- 
motion of its interests. Mr. Evans's friends say that he died 
broken-hearted over the failure of The Hour, 

Opposite The Daily Telegraph offices in Fleet Street has lately 
sprung up a handsome range of buildings, bearing the sign of 
The Daily Chronicle, This represents a new venture in the 


costly field of daily journalism, backed by the sagacity and 
enterprise of Mr. Lloyd, the originator of the first cheap weekly 
newspaper. The Clerkenwell News and Daily Chronicle was a 
local City paper devoted to the cause of the working-population. 
It was crowded with advertisements of all kinds, representing 
the toiling life and cheap speculation of the masses in the East 
End. With a limited circulation, compared with the London 
dailies, it had nevertheless an established commercial reputation. 
Mr. Lloyd gave ;^30,ooo for it, with a view of converting it into 
a regular London daily Liberal journal. A special feature was 
to be its early and reliable news. He calculated that, before it 
became a thorough success, at least ;^ 170,000 beyond the ;^30,ooo 
would have to be spent upon it, and that he must not look back 
for five years. Pending the mechanical and other arrangements 
necessary for laying in the foundation of a sufficient establish- 
ment for his purpose, he continued to bring out the journal for 
six months on its original plan. Immediately on the conclusion 
of his purchase, Mr. Lloyd cabled to Messrs. Hoc, of New York^ 
to make him eight thousand pounds' worth of machines, each 
machine to print from a continuous roll of several miles in length, 
to fold the sheets, and count them into quires of twenty-six 
copies, ready for the newsagent. He also suggested that the 
machines should be made to cut as well as fold the paper, so 
that it could be delivered to the readers ready for use. In due 
course all this was accomplished, and The Daily Chrofiicle was the 
first to be produced with these advantages. It came out in its 
new form and under its new title on May 28, 1877. Within a 
year of that time its circulation increased fivefold. It was soon 
apparent that extended machinery would be required, and again 
the Messrs. Hoe were cabled. Mr. Lloyd (who, years ago, 
had introduced to London the first Hoe machine) asked his 
New York friends to make a double machine that should print 
two complete Chronicles at once, cutting, folding, counting as 



before, but using up a web of paper double the previous width 
and weight, and capable of printing 25.OCX) per hour. It occupied 
Messrs. Hoe more than a year to accomplish this feat, and a good 
deal of time had to be expended over its erection on this side 
of the Atlantic It has turned out, however, to be a complete 
success. It is certainly a most wonderful machine, and The 
Daily Chronicle promises to give Mr. Lloyd an ample return for 
his outlay. His new offices in Fleet Street cost him ;^ 40,000 
and he has just completed new printing-works in Whitefriars 
where the Hoe machines are fixed. I shall have occasion to 
mention these new works in a closing chapter, which will deal 
with Lloyd's Xewspaper, 


The evening newspapers, besides The Globe, referred to in the 
first of this series of papers, include The Pall Mall Gazette, and 
its opponent, T/ie St. James's Gazette. Between these more stately 
craft there steams in and out of the press fleet The Echo, like one 
of the HeralcTs messenger-tugs bouncing about in New York 
Harbour. The Pall Mall was started by Mr. Smith, of the 
famous publishing firm. Smith and Elder. Mr. Frederick Green- 
wood, who originated and planned the paper, was its editor, and 
his brother, Mr. James Greenwood, gave it a good start by a 
graphic sketch of workhouse life, signed "An Amateur Casual." 
Liberal in its general tone. The Pall Mall, however, supported 
with enthusiasm the foreign poUcy of Lord Beaconsfield " as long 
as that statesman's colleagues allowed him to have a policy." 
Many thoughtful essays upon the Eastern Question appeared in 
its columns from the pen of its earnest editor. About a year ago 
Mr. Smith retired from the proprietorship in favour of his son-in- 
law, Mr. Henry Yates Thompson, who was at one time private 
secretary to Earl Spencer (when that nobleman was Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland under Mr. Gladstone's former adminis- 


tration), and also a colleague of Mr. Gladstone in the Parlia- 
mentary contest for Lancashire. Mr. Thompson desired so 
radical a change to be made in the policy of the paper that 
Mr. Greenwood resigned his place; and on his announcing that 
he would continue his Pall Mall policy in a new journal, to be 
called The St. fatness Gazette, nearly the entire staff of The 
Pall Mall, including every writer of importance in all depart- 
ments of the paper, followed his resignation with their own — a 

[Photographed by S. I'roiit, Ncwscoml).) 
proof of the esprit de corps which exists among some of the men who 
work together on the great papers. The Pall Malt has since this 
secession become an out-and-out supporter of Mr. Gladstone, 
under the editorial direction of Mr. John Morley. Mr. Lewis Ser- 
geant, author of " New Greece," who was Mr, Morley's second in 
command, has been succeeded by Mr. W. T. Stead, formerly 
editor of The Northern Echo, famous in the political circles of 
Yorkshire, Northumberland and Durham, Mr. Stead is an 
enthusiastic Liberal. Mr. Leslie Stephen has joined the staff. 


and many of its occasional sketches and essays are from the pen 
of Mr, Anthony Trollope. 

Mr. John Morley is a North countryman. Born at Blackburn, 
Lancashire, in 1838, he was educated at Cheltenham College, 
and at Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor for some years of The 
Fortnightly Review, he is an advanced Liberal, and an author of 
high repute. He contested Blackburn a dozen years ago, but 

[Pholographcd by AtlhurJ. Melhuish, u York Place, Portman Square, London.] 

was not returned. Had he been successful the world would 
probably have lost several works of distinguished merit. An 
earnest politician, Mr. Morley would have written and published 
his views on various subjects. He is one of the men who has 
something to say and must say it. But fulfilling the duties 
connected with the representation of an important constituency 
he would not have found time to write all the books which now 
bear his name. One of his first works was "Edmund Burke, a 


Study " ; and his next in importance, " Voltaire." He is also 
the author of " Rousseau," " Critical Miscellanies," " Diderot and 
the Encyclopaedists," "On Compromise," "Struggle for National 
Education," and " Life of Cobden." 

T/ie St. James's Gazette \% modelled on the typographical lines 
of The Pall Mali, The two journals remind one of the habit 
they have in some districts of America of building opposing 
churches near each other. In architecture they are a good deal 
alike. It is only when you go inside on Sundays that you 
understand how great the difference is between them. So it is 
with these two journals : so much alike to look at, so wonderfully 
opposite in tone and opinion, in purpose and intention. Nobody 
denies the talent and scholarly strength of The St. James's 
Gazette. Mr. Greenwood himself is as "thorough " as Mr. Edwin 
Arnold of The Telegraph in his policy of maintaining intact the 
British Empire at home and abroad.* 

The uncompromising spirit of this national sentiment is nick- 
named "Jingoism." The chief "Jingo" journals of England at 
the present time are The Daily Telegraph, The Standard, The 
Morning Post, The Morning Advertiser, The Sheffield Daily 
Telegraph and The Neivcastle Daily Chronicle. There are many 
other staunch supporters of the Bcaconsfield idea, but these arc 
specially distinguished for the warmth and constancy with which 
they stand by the faith that is in them. Mr. Sutherland Edwards, 
who writes with an almost inspired pen about music, went over 
from the The Pall Mall to The St. James's, and is Mr. Green- 
wood's principal dramatic and musical critic. The political and 
literary staff includes Mr. H. D. Trail, Mr. Frederick Pollock, 
Mr. Gilgud, Mr. Grant Allen, Mr. Lathbury (editor of 7he 

* I'Ae Pall Mall recently reduced its price to a penny, and The St. James's Gazette 
followed suit. In each case both paper, print and matter have been maintained at 
their previous high standard. They are marvellous contradictions of the proveib, 
*' cheap and nasty." It is an education in Liberalism, Conservatism, current 
history and the polite arts to read The Pall Mall and The St. James's. 



Econatnisi) and Mr. Syme ; and if the veil of anonymity were 
completely raised, other and e\'en more distinguished names 
would appear in the list of " constant writers " for the SU 
James s Gazette. How closely the staff is allied with Mr. 
Greenwood's pro-Turkish \*iews is illustrated by the satirical 
remark which Mr. Edwards made in a recent lecture on "The 
Opera," when he said that in the course of her career a prima 
donna \\s\Xs ** all parts of the civilised world — and Russia." 


Ttie Echo was started by Messrs. Cassell, Petter and Galpin, 
and was the first London halfpenny paper of these modem days. 
It astonished the public, and the cost of it more than surprised 
its proprietors, who conducted it, nevertheless, with great spirit, 
and eventually with something like financial success. Mr. 
Arthur Arnold (who now sits in the House of Commons) was its 
editor, and Miss Martineau now and then wrote one of its cha- 
racteristic front-page leaders. Mr. George Bamet Smith was an 
industrious member of the staff. He is the author of several 
popular biographical and historical works. Mr. Willert Beale 
(Walter Maynard) was for a time its musical critic, Mr. Manville 
Fenn writing its dramatic notices. 

Mr. Albert Grant, moved with the idea that he would like to 
have a journal, seeing that Mr. McDougall, his sworn foe, had one, 
opened negotiations for The Ecfio. Without even inspecting the 
office, the machinery, the books, or anything else, he bought it. 
He made no use of it either for personal or public purposes. 
He did not even " go for" McDougall. He changed its shape, 
1 think, and bought magnificent offices for it at Ludgate Circus. 
The echoes which the paper struck on the tympanum of public 
opinion were never very strong. Mr. Grant changed them from 
Liberal to Conservative. Mr. Arnold travelled and wrote a 


book, and left The Echo to its fate. The new proprietor soon 
grew tired of it, and I think the pendulum of Mr. McDougall's 
Hoiir swung its last soon after Mr. Grant disposed of his Ec/to 
to Mr. Passmore Edwards, who took the little paper back to 
Catherine Street, and changed its key to even a more Radical 
fundamental note than that which it had sounded in the days 
of Mr. Arnold. When the editor was fighting for a seat in 
Parliament at the last general election, Mr. Gladstone paid him 
a public compliment in connection with his earnest conduct of 
T/ie Echoy and now Mr. Edwards is a member of the British 
House of Commons, one of a remarkable force of press men who 
sit on both sides of the House. Mr. Howard Evans is said to 
be the responsible editor of The EchOy which under its new 
management has reached a far higher circulation than the 
enterprise of Cassell or Grant could secure for it. Until quite 
recently The Eclio had no halfpenny contemporary in London, 
but it has a host in the provinces, several of them well- 
established and profitable undertakings.* 

The Globe is associated with distinguished journalistic names. 
The late Colonel Torrens, M.P., was once its proprietor. Mr. 
Charles Buller, while M.P. for Liskeard, wrote leading articles for 
it. Mr. Francis Mahony (" Father Prout ") was for many years 
its chief contributor. One of the editoral traditions of the paper 
deals with the singular adventures of Mr. Gibbons Merle. He 
had a mania for starting newspapers. His enterprises were as 
unfortunate as they were numerous. He became editor of The 
Globe. This was forty years ago. The position was not com- 
fortable. He went to Paris, became one of the editors of 

♦ Among the earliest halfpenny papers in England were The Glasgmu Evening 
Cititen, The Leeds Express^ The Bolton Evening Neivs^ and The Bradford Chronicle 
and Mail, These have worthy competitors in The Northern Echo, The Bir- 
mingham Mail, and several similar journals published in Liverpool, Manchester 
and other cities. London has now two halfpenny evening papers. The Echo and The 
Evening News, 

M 2 




« _» . 


hit cfwifn^A^fK:. ir; ;/r:vite. "* A c>r/-rr mar., b.-::! can'i keep an 
b^yt^I ^ i-. iin An-j'jncan prv/erb. arc :i n:tar-5 a great deal. 

1 h-^^: \\ zn^Ahf:r %tor>' of 7A«? GUc€ 'nhkh is almcr^t dramatic 
At '4k\\ 'r/er»t% it j>rcsentn the reader "»xth a curious example of 
fSi^rAfXt:J nhich %iouId develop well either for stag:e purposes. 
tff \x\ \\\K pi*;j':% f^ the novelUL In Mr. Grant's estimation, Mr. 
WfffAU 'Aa^ a mr^if'A hub-tditor. He enlivened the pages of TVt*^ 
/"•//y^/? 'Aith \f^:n, \94kS\iz\jffA and JscLssors more than fi\ e-and-twenty 
yt.Hf*. A'jj*. 'Hu! (jUfhe pr^/spercd weil under Moran. He 
XA\\\A/,V*:i\ fiytiry cjrr :nt work for paragraphs of general interest. 
No publication wan free from his scrutiny in the interest of The 
(/tohf. \\fi was eccentric in his attire, this industrious Moran ; 
noU>dy c-vcr .saw him in a new coat. The old clothesman 
i\%i:^%iA him, the dealer in napless hats provided his head gear. 


His friends made sarcastic remarks about his love of style, and 
sent him plates of the latest fashions, but he only smiled good- 
naturedly at their banter. A sly fellow, Moran ; few knew where 
or how he lived, but everybody knew that he was " warm " — a 
miser indeed, who if he lived long enough would "cut up rich." 
He used to get allotments of shares in companies and sell out at 
a premium. The modern practice, which was shown to obtain 
even in The Times office a few years ago, leading to the removal 
of the City office from beneath the shadow of the old lady 
of Threadneedle Street, had a precedent. During the railway 
mania in 1845, ^I^. Moran secured early allotments of stock, 
and he told his friend Grant that he made it a rule to sell 
them the very day on which he obtained them. Mr. Grant 
knew that Moran received large premiums on many of the 
shares. Mr. Grant also knew that his "salary and perquisites" 
amounted to ;^SOO a year, and that his personal expenses were 
exceedingly small. Moran "lived alone in lodgings in Howard 
Street, leading out of Norfolk Street, Strand, and saw no 
company in his own apartments, and lived altogether in the 
most economical manner." One day poor Moran, eccentric, sub- 
editor, miser, wearer of old clothes, " dcv'lish sly, sir," was taken 
ill. A few weeks previously he had told his friend Grant that 
"for a sub-editor" he was "comparatively wealthy." He 
mentioned among his other possessions that he held shares in 
the Westminster Bank to the tunc of £6000. Not bad, indeed, 
for a sub-editor ! But he possessed other treasures of scrip 
and gold. When he was taken ill, he was, no doubt, well tended. 
Falstaff went out babbling of green fields. Moran died 
gossiping of his wealth. From that day to this it has never 
been discovered that Moran was worth a cent. The Westminster 
Bank being interviewed declared they knew nothing of his 
deposits or his shares. No trace of scrip or gold could be 
discovered. Moran was a beggar, unless his wealth was hidden 


away. If the house in which he lodged has not been pulled 
down it might be a good speculation to buy it, and search for 
secreted treasures. The old Globe office might furnish a return 
to an exploring company. There are millions of pounds' worth 
of unclaimed consols and Bank deposits in London. Do Moran s 
deposit notes, scrip and " currency " exist in some unsuspected 
hole or corner ? Or did he live two lives, one that of the 
eccentric sub-editor, another that of a rich commoner? Did 
Mr. Grant ever see him on Sundays ? Not long since a 
pilfering clerk in a great firm of solicitors was discovered to 
be a rich man in this way. His chief went on a visit into the 
country. He noticed a fine house and grounds. His host 
described the property as belonging to **a wealthy City man 
who is in London all the week, and here from Saturday to 
Monday." " Here comes his carriage," said the host. A pair of 
fine horses pulled up, and out of the handsome vehicle stepped 
"the chiefs" confidential clerk and cashier. This led to an 
inquiry and to fourteen years' transportation. Moran was of 
course an honest man ; but where did he go from Saturday to 
Monday } 

( i67 ) 



Rapid Writing— A Notable Gathering — Adventures of War Correspondents — 
" After Sedan " — ** Mart d I ^Espion prussien / " — Ordered to be shot — A 
Press Fund Dinner — Lord Sahsbury on the Profession of Journalism — 
Parliamentary Debates — A Reporter for Ten Minutes — Exciting Scenes 
in and out of the Commons — Reminiscences of a Great Occasion. 


In proposing the toast of the evening at the dinner given to 
Mr. Forbes, in December, 1877, Mr. George Augustus Sala 
dwelt upon the difficulties under which newspaper correspondence 
is produced, and seemed to find exceptional merit in the fact 
that the good things which Forbes had written were done rapidly 
and under the immediate inspiration of the great events he had 
described. No one will desire for a moment to detract from the 
splendid work of Forbes, but this notion of attaching special 
credit to the fact that the best articles of the correspondent had 
been done rapidly is not what one might have expected from a 
journalist of Mr. Sala's knowledge and experience. Given great 
events to describe, the necessity for describing them while they 
are fresh before you is greatly in favour of the result being 
graphic, picturesque and realistic. To take even high ground in 
the polished paths of literary art and poetic excellence, many 


brilliant passages in the works of our famous writers have been 
written ** under a certain impulse of impatience," as William 
Benton Clulow puts it, "or with the rapidity produced by 
enthusiasm." Pope said the things he had written quickly 
always pleased most ** I wrote the * Essay on Criticism * fast, 
for I had digested all the matter in prose before I began it in 
verse." Dryden penned the ** Ode on St. Cecilia's Day '* at a 
sitting. Luther used to say he always wrote best when in a 
passion. Scott said the passages in '* Waverlcy " which pleased 
most were written the fastest. The traditions of The Telegraph, 
1 feel sure, would furnish some remarkable illustrations of Mr. 
Sala's own tours de force in the way of leading articles and 
special correspondence. Many journalists in the present day 
dictate their work to short-hand writers. One of the most 
prolific of leader-writers, when engaged upon The Telegraph 
(which he lately resigned for an appointment on The Standard), 
dictated every line of his work. He had a curious habit of 
composition. He made a point of producing his leader at the 
office every night. He would take off his coat, waistcoat and 
boots, light a short pipe and walk about the room ; and in an 
hour his article was finished. Now and then it was completed 
in half that time. Lucy, of The Daily Neivs, dictates the whole 
of his matter. Mr. Yates hardly ever writes a line with his 
own hand. His .short-hand clerk is continually at his elbow. 
Several men have tried to bring the type-writer into use, but 
only Farjeon, I believe, has been enabled to achieve complete 
success with it, and Farjeon was originally a printer ; .so that the 
mechanical character of the work troubled him less at the outset 
than would be the case with most writers. • 

It is a common thing on the English side of the Atlantic for 
journalists and litterateurs, past and present, to fail as speakers. 
Forbes, at the dinner given to him by the press, bungled in his 
attempt to acknowledge the compliment he had received. He 


said he never was a good speaker, and he would sooner stand 
to be shot at for half an hour than stand and speak for the 
same length of time. He only said a few words, and he said 
them in a tone of hesitancy and confusion ; though he could 
have sat down and written an oration worthy of the most 
splendid records of post-prandial eloquence. Thackeray could 
not speak impromptu. Douglas Jerrold, so witty when sitting 
at table, was, as already stated, quite at fault on his legs. Once 
at Sheffield, when suddenly presented with some memento of 
his visit by a deputation of working men, he could not find six 
words in all his vocabulary to acknowledge the gift. Years ago, 
when a number of the Punch men went down to Boston, in 
Lincolnshire, to help their friend Ingram at his election, the 
whole town was filled with astonishment to find that Mark 
Lemon and his humorous colleagues could not make a speech 
among them. I once sat by the side of Dallas, of The Times, 
when his health was proposed, in the company of Shirley 
Brooks, Tom Taylor, Burnand, Lemon, Tenniel and others. 
He could only say '' Thank you." 

Among our present writers, Sala, Cowen, Morley, TroUope, 
McCarthy, Arthur Arnold, Labouchere, are notable exceptions ; 
as also was the late Mr. Tom Taylor. Dickens had special 
powers as a speaker. He liked to have the chance of thinking out 
a speech, but it was not necessary to him. Sala thinks and speaks 
on his legs as felicitously as he writes. The Forbes dinner 
was a triumph for war correspondents. Sala presided over it ; 
he, the chief of travelled specials ; he, the raciest of modern 
gossipists. He was supported on one hand by a Duke, his 
Grace of Sutherland, on the other by Forbes. He had for an 
audience Lord Houghton, General Lord Mark Kerr, Sir Charles 
McGregor, Sir J. Heron Maxwell, Colonel Farquharson, Colonel 
Marshall, Colonel Napier Sturt, Colonel Evelyn Wood, Alderman 
Cotton, M.P.; Captain John Hozicr ; Colonel Charles Bracken- 


bury, of The Times ; Mr. O'Donnell, M.P.; Mr. H. Oppenheim ; 
Sir A. Borthwick, editor of The Morning Post ; Mr. Labouchere, 
M.P.; Mr. J. R. Robinson, of The Daily News ; Mr. F. Green- 
wood (then editor of The Pall Mall) ; Mr. Alfred Austin ; Mr. 
Pellegrini, the caricaturist of Vanity Fair ; Mr. E. Dicey, editor 
of Tlie Observer ; Mr. Ernest Hart (the medical writer who 
did the royal bulletins for The Times when the Prince of Wales 
was ill) ; Major Butler (who had recently married Miss Elizabeth 
Thompson, the artist) ; Mr. E. S. Pigott, a Spectator contributor 
of the old days, now the Lord Chamberlain's Examiner of Plays ; 
Mr. G. Henty, a Standard special ; Major KnoUys, a general 
leader-writer ; Mr. Edmund Yates, of Tlie World ; and other 
well-known journalists, military men and persons of public note. 
Mr. Sala talked to them to his heart's content and to their 
satisfaction. Lord Mark Kerr, Lord Houghton, Mr. Yates and 
Mr. Parkinson had also toasts allotted to them, but George 
Augustus was the orator of the day. Forbes called him his 
" old friend Brutus." He said that was not the proudest 
moment of his life. The proudest moment was when a gentle- 
man in that room accepted his first article. This was the next 
proudest, and so long as memory lasted he should never forget 
it. He spoke with a tremor in his voice, and everybody was 
touched with a feeling of sympathy for him. Sala shook him 
by the hand. At the close, the company gave him three cheers ; 
and a few days later Forbes was once more on his way to the 


The adventures of war correspondents, their perils by flood 
and field, their splendid conduct in the heat of battle, their 
marvellous rides with dispatches, their strange escapes and their 
gallant deaths, would make a thrilling volume of heroic deeds. 
During the Franco-German and Russo-Turkish wars they were 


continually liable to arrest and execution as spies. In the 
former conflict the French were afflicted with a sort of mania for 
seeing in every stranger a Prussian spy. '' Mort d tespion 
prussiepi /" was continually on their lips. Illustrious Frenchmen 
themselves fell victims to the spy-panic, and several English 
newspaper correspondents had narrow escapes of death in la 
cliasse aiix espions. Mr. M. Laing Meason. formerly on the staff 
of Tlie Daily News and special correspondent of Tlie New York 
Herald with MacMahon's corps d'arm^e, had a very dramatic 
experience, which formed the subject of a paper which he wrote 
for Macmillapi s Magazine. It was immediately after Sedan ; 
and he recalls the circumstances to me in a letter which is not 
altogether encouraging as an example of the brilliant rewards 
that belong to a journalistic career. 

" On my way to MacMahon's head-quarters," he says, " I 
returned to the small cabaret outside the walls, where I had left 
my carriage and horses, and while paying for what the latter 
had consumed was not a little astonished at the surly insolence 
with which the people of the small inn spoke to me. My 
coachman, who was a German-Swiss, told me that he had been 
accused of being a Prussian spy, and that the people of the inn, 
as well as their neighbours, declared that the commandant de 
place must be a traitor to France if he did not imprison me for 
daring to come near a French garrison ; intimating at the same 
time that they were perfectly certain that I was no Englishman, 
but a spy of Bismarck's. Knowing, however, that at this time 
the French in general were suffering greatly from * Prussian spy 
on the brain,* and feeling certain that the commandant's 
endorsement of my passport would see me through any trouble, 
I paid little attention to the man's fears. The horses were put 
to, and I started on my journey, which, I very soon had good 
reason to fear, would be the last one I should ever undertake on 
this side of the grave. 


" We had proceeded about four miles from Sedan, when 
suddenly, at a sharp turn of the road, we came upon a body of 
men drawn up across the latter. They were armed with muskets, 
wore military pouches, and were dressed in a sort of irregular 
uniform, by which I knew them to be Francs-tireurs, that most 
undisciplined body of undisciplined troops which did so much 
harm to their own cause during the whole campaign. There 
were, as nearly as I could judge, some fifty or sixty of them. 
They had been evidently waiting for us. They surrounded the 
carriage in a moment, and, with frantic yells, among which 
the only words to be distinguished were, * Le sacre espion 
prussien I ' they pulled me on to the road, bound my hands 
with cords, and, had their arms been loaded, I believe they 
would there and then have shot me. I asked them where their 
officers were, but in reply they only vented on me the foulest 
abuse, saying they had no officers, and that when Frenchmen 
caught a Prussian spy they knew how to treat him. Why or 
wherefore they did not touch my coachman — whose accent 
betrayed very plainly his German origin — I never could make 
out. He was allowed to remain on his driving-seat, where he 
sat absolutely green with fear. In the meantime, the first 
excitement having subsided, about ten of them formed them- 
selves into what they were pleased to call a conseil de guerre^ and 
proceeded to try me for what they had already fully determined 
in their own minds I was guilty of, namely, of being a Prussian 

*' I asked again where their officers were, and whether I could 
speak to any of them ; but they answered, with imprecations, 
that there were no officers present, that I was a Prussian spy, 
and ought to be shot at once. I was buffeted, knocked down in 
the most cowardly manner, and kicked when on the ground. 
When I asked to be taken back to Sedan, that the commandant 
de place might judge my case, I was told that the commandant 


was like the rest of the French army — a traitor ; and one ruffian, 
who was even more ruffianly than his fellows, seized his musket 
by the muzzle, and declared that, if I spoke again, he would brain 
me with the butt. 

" I need hardly say that the so-called trial was the veriest farce 
ever enacted under that name. The unfortunate grey coat with 
the black velvet collar was declared by one of my judges to be 
of German make. I was asked where I got it, and when I told 
them it had been purchased at Carlsruhe, a regular howl was set 
up, as if I had avowed myself to be an intimate friend of 
Bismarck. The very fact of having in my possession a coat that 
was purchased in Germany was deemed sufficient proof of my 
being a German and a spy. When I offered to show them my 
papers, and declared that I was an Englishman, with an English 
passport, they yelled at me in derision. One dirty-looking 
miscreant came forward and said he could speak English very 
well, and would soon find out whether or not my tale was true. 
He addressed mc in some jargon which sounded like English, 
but of which I could make no sense, and in which, except the 
words, * You speak very well, Englishman,* there was no 
meaning whatever. However, I answered him in my own 
language, thinking that by doing so I should, at any rate, raise 
a doubt in his mind. But, to my amazement, no sooner had I 
answered him than he turned round to his companions and 
declared I was a German, and had spoken to him in that tongue. 
This seemed quite enough, not merely to convince the rabble — 
for they had already been so — but it was more than enough to 
make them declare their sentence. * A inort ! d mart ! ' went 
round the circle, and I was then and there condemned to death. 
I was taken to a dead wall, some ten yards off, put up with my 
back against it, twelve men were ordered to load their muskets 
there and then, two were told off to give me the coup de gr&ce, 
should I require it ; and, as Vi finale to my sentence, one of the 


scoundrels produced a watch, and told me they would give me 
ten minutes to prepare for death. 

"With some people, and I confess myself to be one of the 
number, the greater the dilemma in which they are placed, the 
more certain are they to invent some loophole by which to 
escape. Five out of the allotted ten minutes had already 
passed, when a thought struck me to try a plan, which I put 
into immediate execution. ' Voyez, messieurs,^ I called out, 
' you have condemned me to death ; but according to the laws 
of France not even an assassin is executed without seeing a 
priest I therefore ask you, an nom de la France et de la justice^ 
(with Frenchmen you must always use high-sounding words if 
you want to get round them), * to send for M, le Cur^ of the 
nearest Communey and let me see him before I die.' . 

"The attempt was a hazardous one, and might have ended — as 
it certainly would have done with the Communards of Belleville 
or Montmartre — by a curtailment of the five minutes which 
remained, or which I believed remained, between me and 
eternity. However, like many desperate attempts, it was 
successful. A dozen or so of my captors whispeted together 
among themselves, and then, turning round, exclaimed, " Cest 
juste I c'est bieti juste ; il a le droit de voir un pritre avant de 
mourir. Envoy ez cliercher M, le Cur^!^^ And to search for 
the parish priest a couple of men started off in different 

"As may be imagined, I was not a little pleased at this 
reprieve. In any case it would give me time to collect my 
thoughts ; and there was every chance of the priest having 
some influence over the Francs-tireurs and persuading them 
to allow of my being taken before the regular civil or military 

"The time passed on, and M, le Cunf did not arrive. My 
captors began to growl and grumble, and in more than one 


quarter I heard the ominous words, * // faut en finir^ muttered 
in a tone which left no doubt of their meaning. 

*' All at once a new figure appeared on the scene. It was an 
old man, who, by his belt and the gun under his arm, was 
evidently the Garde Champitre of the village, and on whose 
blouse the red ribbon of the Legion of Honour showed that he 
had served in the army. I accosted the old fellow with a civil 
salutation, and told him that I could see he had been a soldier, 
and that he probably could perceive that I also had once belonged 
to the profession of arms. The old fellow brightened up in an 
instant, and said yes, that it was very evident I had served ; 
although, how he came to this conclusion I was at a loss to 

" ' Perhaps,* I said to him, * you served with my compatriots in 
the Crimea } ' (He was far too old to have done so, but it is 
always well to flatter a Frenchman.) 

" * Ouiy Monsieur' he replied ; ^fai servi en Crim^e avec vos 
braves compatriots' 

" ' And,' said I, ' you perhaps learnt their language ? ' 

" ' Mais ouiy monsieur^ he replied, * I can speak your language 
a little.' 

" * And you can read it .^ ' I said, giving him at the same 
time a look as I put to him what lawyers would call * a leading 

'* The old fellow seemed to understand me at once, and replied 
that he could read English very well. 

*' * Then,' said I, motioning to him to take my Foreign-Office 
passport out of my pocket, *will you have the goodness to 
read these documents, and to inform ces braves messieurs that 
I am not a Prussian, and that I am not a spy ; that I am an 
English officer of rank " (I thought it better to colour the 
picture as highly as possible), " travelling in France to witness 
how brave Frenchmen defend their native soil, and how these 


brave men, the Francs-tireurs, are always ready to die for their 

" The old fellow took my passport in his hand, but I am afraid 
that when he said he could read our language at all he had 
somewhat economised the truth. He held the document in his 
hand upside dawn, gazing at it for about a minute. He then, 
with a suddenness which astonished me not a little, undid the 
cord which bound my hands, clapped my hat on my head, and, 
exclaiming in a loud tone, * Cest vrai, cest vrai, monsieur est un 
officier anglais, un colonel tres distingui^' hurried me to my 
carriage, which was luckily only a few yards off, bundled me in, 
'and, exclaiming to the coachman, ' A lions, cocher ; fotiettez, 
fouettez !' sprang on the box himself, and in less time than I 
can take to describe it, we were tearing along the road at full 
speed, before my captors had recovered their astonishment at 
the old man's audacity. Some of them ran after us for a short 
distance, and two or three of those who had loaded their 
muskets for the purpose of shooting mc fired after us as we sped 
on our way. Even then I had a narrow escape from these 
bloodthirsty ruffians. One of their balls went near enough to 
my head to make a hole in the crown of my billycock, which is to 
this day preserved by a friend in Brussels as a relic of the war. 

" The old Garde Champttrc went on with me to Mouzon, where 
I had the pleasure of getting ^vo, hundred francs on my letter of 
credit, and making him accept the same. If ever one man 
by his presence of mind saved the life of another, that veteran 
saved mine." 

Mr. Meason is a Scotchman. Educated in France and at 
St. Gregory's College, near Boston, he entered the army in 1839 
as ensign of the 4Cth Regiment, served through the second 
Afghan and the Gwalior campaigns in India, was badly 
wounded, received two medals, joined the Hussars, sold out in 
1851, and afterwards devoted himself to journalism. lie is the 


author of ** The Bubbles of Finance," and " The Profits of 
Panics," two clever exposures of joint-stock operations ; and he 
has contributed largely to the serial literature of the day. 


At the Press Fund dinner in May, 1878, presided over by 
Lord Salisbury, the following noblemen and distinguished 
persons were present to do honour to journalism, and more 
particularly to certain newspaper correspondents (Mr. Stanley of 
The New York Herald, and Mr. Forbes of The Daily News 
among the number) : Lord Houghton, the Prince Imperial of 
France, Count Beust (Austro-Hungarian Ambassador) ; Midhat 
Pasha, Cardinal Manning, General Lord Napier of Magdala, the 
Earl of Dunraven, Lord Denman, Lord Crewe, Lord Colchester, 
Lord Norton, Lord O'Hagan, Lord E. Fitzmauricc. M.P., Lord 
Ventry, the Count de Turenne, General Sir W. Codrington, 
Lord Clarence Paget, Hon. Hobart Pasha, Monsignor Capel 
(the famous Catholic prelate immortalised in " Lothair "), the Dean 
of Lichfield, Sir Julius Benedict, &c. Mr. Forbes on this occasion 
proposed the toast of ** The Army and Navy." He proclaimed 
the general sentiment of the hour, that there is a worse calamity 
than war, namely, national dishonour. Count Beust and Lord 
Salisbury were rivals, at this memorable dinner, in praising the 
press for its wise and careful use of the freedom which it enjoys, 
and Lord Salisbury was particularly happy in his reference to 
the labours of the special correspondent. " He seems," said his 
lordship, ** to be forced to combine in himself the power of a 
first-class steeple-chaser with the power of the most brilliant 
writer — the most wonderful physical endurance with the most 
remarkable mental vigour." From this acknowledgment of the 
practical genius of the Russells, Stanleys and Forbeses of 
journalism, Lord Salisbury drew a touching picture of the dark side 



of a press career, and made an appeal for the English Press Fund, 
which is designed to help newspaper men and litterateurs in the 
hour of special need. ** But," he said, " all these qualities of the 
journalist are attained and maintained with great strain. They 
can only be sustained by natures of the strongest fibre and 
intellectual power in the highest state of efficiency. The fas- 
cinations of the newspaper press are very great. To enter a 
journalistic career requires no capital, it requires comparatively 
little training ; it has but one requirement — brains ; but that it 
requires in a very large degree. But there are no vested 
interests to sustain it. There is no organised profession to 
reward it. The work must be done well at the greatest cost of 
mental and physical power, and the moment these qualities 
decline, the capacity to earn money is gone. Journalism, 
therefore, above all professions, is the one which should be aided 
by an institution of this kind. The rewards of the profession are 
great, the power which it exercises is wonderful, but the 
calamities to which it is liable arc exceptional. I know nothing 
more distressing than to read, as one sometimes does, that a 
man whose genius, originality, wit and humour have fascinated 
the world, and who has carried on the battle of life by the 
exercise of these qualities against increasing disease and fear of 
destitution for his family, has succumbed under the labour at 
last. Therefore, gentlemen, not only as a politician, but as one 
of a civilised community, who feels that to the action of the 
newspaper press, to its high efficiency, civilisation owes more 
than to any profession that men pursue, I ask you to join in 
drinking health to, and to contribute in securing prosperity to, 
the Newspaper Press Fund." 

It is worth while to state that the Press Fund has now 
been in existence seventeen or eighteen years. The Associa- 
tion has fought its way through a good deal of opposition. T/ie 
Times, for example, made it a condition, and, I believe, does 


so still, that none of its staff belong to it. When enforcing 
this regulation T/ie Times raised the salaries of its Parliamen- 
tary reporters, the reason for the objection being that the 
influences of the Society might possibly interfere with the 
impartiality of that portion of its staff which has charge of the 
debates and of public meetings. I remember that, at the time 
when the subject was much discussed, the opponents of the Fund 
argued that members of Parliament who did not subscribe 
to it might be unfairly treated by weak brethren, and that 
patrons of the institution would obtain more consideration at the 
hands of reporters than might be warranted by the occasion, or by 
the subject of their orations. The opinion of The TimeSy however, 
was understood to be a general dislike of press men appealing 
for support to a benevolent society to which the outside world 
was invited to contribute. The Press Fund has, nevertheless, 
become a prosperous and useful institution, and its anniversary 
dinners are among the most interesting gatherings of the London 
season. The Times is very jealous of the independence of its re- 
presentatives and its management. It is what is called a " non- 
society " office ; a struggle with the Printers' Trades Union 
ending in the proprietors of T/te Times excluding members of 
that body from their staff, and encouraging " good hands " to 
remain with them by extra payment and other privileges. The 
Times office of New York is conducted on similar principles 
and for similar reasons, with this addition, that Mr. George 
Jones has established a co-operative society, or sick club, in his 
establishment, which makes it a special privilege to join his 
printing staff, and a disaster to leave it. 


One of the most important departments of a London daily 
journal is that which belongs to the chronicling of the debates in 

N 2 


Parliament. As an unfamiliar example of the work, and at the 
same time illustrating the difficulties of what may be called 
" foreign correspondence," I venture to recall an experience of 
the war debates of 1877-8. It was my duty in the early days 
of the last-mentioned year to send a special dispatch by cable to 
an American journal, narrating the leading features of a certain 
debate, and indicating the feeling of the moment in reference to 
the situation between Russia and Turkey, and Russia and 
England. For the reader who is not accustomed to go behind 
the scenes of journalism, it may be interesting to recall the 
occasion and realise it. 

I am writing on the night of Monday, January 28, 1878. In 
this case it is desirable to fix the date. Parliament Street is 
busy with traffic, on foot and on wheels. The light of the great 
lantern on the clock tower burns dimly among the raining 
clouds. The effigy of the Egyptian obelisk looms up in the 
murky atmosphere, with the black shadowy outline of West- 
minster Abbey for a background. The gas-lamps, in clusters 
of flaring globes, flash upon the muddy roads. My driver evi- 
dently thinks I am an honourable member, a little late for the 
debate. He winds boldly in and out of every obstruction, and 
dashes recklessly onward whenever there is a vacant space in 
the general traffic. I make my way to the reporters' entrance, 
which is not less scrupulously guarded than the portals that 
open for Cabinet Ministers. I know there is not a place to be 
had. Every seat, every corner, is occupied. A well-known 
novelist and journalist dashes past me, head thrown back, hands 
full of pa|>ers. He writes leaders for an Opposition paper. He 
has a scat in the press gallery. It will be his delight to point out 
to-morrow that everything the Ministry does is wrong, and 
j>ossibly, that Russia is still " the divine figure of the North." I 
reach the ante-room of the press gallery. A dozen men go in 
and out while I talk with an old journalistic colleague. At the 


head of the narrow staircase by which I have ascended are the 
press messengers and telegraph boys waiting for " copy," which 
comes out of the adjacent writing-room in batches of " flimsy," to 
be rushed into the hands of compositors for the special London 
editions, or sent by telegraph to the hundreds of country 
newspapers which subscribe to " The Press Association " and 
"The Press News." Big Ben slowly hammers out six while I 
shake hands with busy men who come and go, finishing their 
" turns," or taking them up. Ten minutes is the general 
"turn " on an important debate, when verbatim reports are made 
of the leading speeches. As they finish their notes the reporters 
retire to a spacious writing-room and transcribe them. I am 
taken there to see the toilers. Some thirty or forty are busy 
with the Chancellor of the Exchequer's speech. " He is to be 
followed by Lord Hartington," says my friend, the leader of 
one of the reporting corps, "but Gladstone is trying to out- 
general him, and get up first." Every possible arrangement 
is made for the comfort of the phonetic and stenographic 
historians. While my own " turn " to go into the gallery (for I 
have made a mysterious " ten minutes arrangement," and hope I 
may escape hanging should I be found out) comes, I go the 
round of the press apartments. They consist of cloak-room and 
lavatories, a comfortable refreshment-room (there was a fine 
round of beef on the side-board), a news-room, furnished with 
the magazines and weekly papers, and a smoking-room. It 
cannot be said that "the Fourth Estate" is neglected now at 
St. Stephen's, whatever difficulties it had to encounter in the 
days of Cave, Woodfall and Perry, who, playing the part of 
journalistic spies, used to take notes in their hats and write them 
out by the flicker of a candle in some coffee-house or bar-parlour. 
What a change! Nothing tells the story of liberal progress in 
this country more thoroughly than the history of Parliamentary 
reporting. When Onslow was Speaker of the House of 


Commons, it was a species of treason to report a speech in 
Parliament. Now to neglect to notice a speaker would be to 
politically kill him. In the old days the Speaker lectured 
reporters at the bar of the House, and the Sergeant-at-Arms 
imprisoned them. To-day statesmen address them, and the 
Government takes care that they have facilities for doing their 
work in comfort. " Peers," as a friend wrote to me recently, 
" used to look upon reporters pretty much in the light that they 
still look on poachers ; to-day they dine with them at Willis's 
Rooms, under the presidency of a Royal Duke, and toast the 
press as an estate of the realm." My guide leaves me to a 
solitary cigar while he fixes my ten minutes' duties. I try 
and recall, while he is away, the great men who in their early 
days were parliamentary reporters : Charles Dickens, Shirley 
Brooks, John Campbell (Lord High Chancellor), Justice Tal- 
fourd, among those who are gone, and Dr. Russell among famous 
men who are living. Many of the men high in journalism and 
distinguished at the Bar to-day have been parliamentary 

While I am trying to think of the future great ones among 
the crowd I have just left I am called. My '*turn" has come. 
From the smoke-room to the gilded chamber is almost a magic 
change. In the narrow passage where the light flashes from the 
House through a glass doorway I encounter the summary writer 
of that same Opposition daily, his hair dishevelled, his eyes full 
of bright intelligence. The Opposition journal seems to pervade 
the place. The great Russophile paper is hoping for a triumph. 
I notice, as I am solemnly ushered in, the Falstaffian form of 
the director of the associated press corps, and then, right across 
to the opposite gallery, one solemn face among a crowd of 
spectators rivets my attention. It is a sad, eager face, with 
marked features, an earnest, patient-looking face, with grey hair 
hanging about it— iron-grey hair, seen the plainer that it is sur- 


mounted by a red fez. All the calm face seems to listen as 
the impressive tones of the Chancellor of the Exchequer fill 
the House. The cheers sound like falling waters. What a sea 
of faces ! And what remarkable faces, when you begin to have 
time to pick out individual examples ! It is a little while before 
one gets used to the soft, sun-like atmosphere of the Chamber. 
The ceiling is an illuminated surface. It seems to generate a 
soft, genial warmth, an equal, gilded light. Every seat on the 
floor of the House is occupied. I am told that Count Schouvaloff 
is in the gallery opposite. I only see that sad, thoughtful, 
Turkish face, the expressive countenance of Midhat Pasha. 
While I am taking in the whole scene under the spell of its 
various impressions, the voice of the Chancellor is becoming 
familiar to me, and the cheers of the House induce me to pay 
attention to what he is saying. 

" This is not a question of the moment," he says. " It is 
whether we are or we are not to go into the conference armed 
with the strength of a united nation." [A burst of cheering.] 
"We hear outside a great deal about the position of England, 
that it is degraded, humiliating. I believe myself that all such 
language is false — as mischievous as it is false." [Cheer upon 
cheer greets this sentiment, and the Chancellor, who had, it 
seemed to me, been speaking in a subdued voice, rises to the 
warmth of the moment] " England," he goes on to say, " is not 
a weak country. I do challenge a comparison between the 
strength of any other country you may name — try it by what 
test you please." [Loud cheers.] " When you do try it you will 
find that England will come out second to none." [Cheers.] 
" There are weaknesses, no doubt. But we have great wealth ; 
we have a great and well-appointed Navy ; we have a small, but 
very well-appointed, Army^an Army capable of quick and easy 
increase ; we have a position of the utmost importance ; but 
above all, we have the support of a people who are, by their 


constitution and temperament, the lovers of freedom, the 
supporters of all that \s noble, and who are ready, when the time 
needs, to shed their blood and expend their treasure in any cause 
that they think good." [Loud cheers greet these opinions, and 
the speaker marches on with oratorical fervour to denounce 
those who perpetually go about discrediting and making light of 
the power and spirit of the country.] " I am not one of those," 
he says, "who attach great importance to what is called prestige, 
or who would enter upon an expenditure of blood and treasure 
for the mere purpose of keeping up the glory of a country, but 
what I think is even worse than the attempt by such means to 
increase and maintain a false prosperity, is the deliberate 
attempt to destroy the proper prestige of your country." [Loud 
cheers.] " I venture to say that if, by such a course as that we 
see on the part of some who ought to know better" [general 
cheers.], " if, I say, by such a course England should by degrees 
be forced into a position of humiliation — if England should once 
be brought to believe that she has been betrayed — that her 
interests have been seriously attacked, there would arise a feeling 
which would require that the insult, that the humiliation should 
be wiped out, and wiped out in a manner we should all regret." 
[Great applause.] ** It is not the cause of peace which is 
promoted by language of that kind." [Cheers, and cries of 
** Hear, hear ! "] "It is not promoting the cause of peace for 
you to be perpetually telling every one that your country is 
afraid to go to war." [Cries of " No, No ! " from one side of the 
House, and loud cheering from the other.] " Or that she is too 
weak," continues the Chancellor, between the interruptions. 
[Then there were cries of " Name ! name ! " ] " Or that she is too 
divided," he goes on as if no interruption had occurred ; but he is 
presently pulled up by continued cries of " No, no ! " and 
" Name ! name ! " which come chiefly from that side of the 
Chamber where I see Mr. Gladstone and Mr. John Bright sitting. 


** I am asked for names," says the Chancellor, who is answered 
by a general cheer. " I would most respectfully decline to give 
names ; but I will say this — that I rejoice to learn, from the 
expressions that I hear from all quarters of the house — including 
the rather vehement cries of * Name ! * from the quarter from 
which it proceeds — I am glad to hear that the sentiments I am 
expressing are not alone the sentiments of a party, but the 
sentiments of the House of Commons." After the cheering 
subsides he follows these views up with some general remarks on 
the necessity of England going into a conference for the 
settlement of the great questions at issue, strong and with power. 
But the old English blood in him has been aroused by the 
national sympathies which he has touched in the representative 
Chamber of England, and he comes back to points where there 
are no differences between true Englishmen. " On this I will 
venture to say there is no difference : that there is only one 
feeling among Englishmen, that when they are satisfied as to 
the course in which they should engage " — [Loud and prolonged 
cheering from all parts of the House.] — " then the arm of England 
is not shortened, and the heart of England has not grown timid." 
[Continued cheering, during which I am told my " turn " is at 
an end, and I find myself once again in the passages outside the 
gallery, my pulse beating more rapidly than when I entered it, 
and that sad, sober, reflective face of Midhat Pasha still in my 
mind's eye.] 


I retrace my steps through a little crowd of telegraphists, 
messengers, doorkeepers, down a long flight of narrow^ steps, out 
through a heavy portico, and once more into Palace Yard, 
confronting that shadowy obelisk set up to familiarise us with 
the original. Turning to the right, I push my way through the 


mud along Parliament Street, past Downing Street and the 
Government offices, where the gas is all lighted ; past Whitehall, 
where Charles I. stepped out to be beheaded ; up into Trafalgar 
Square, where Landseer's lions crouch in calm and dignified 
state. The newsboys are crying the evening papers. " Hos- 
tilities renewed ! " I hear them say ; " Armistice not yet signed ! " 
I walk on to the Haymarket. There is a crowd waiting to go 
into the cheapest parts of Her Majesty's Theatre. I continue 
my course until I reach the neighbourhood of Piccadilly Circus. 
Newsmen are selling ** the fifth Globe'' " Here y*ar, sir, T/ie 
Glober " Hecho ! " shouts another. " Fifth Hecho I " I buy them, 
in company with a score of other loiterers, and ask for " the 
specials." " Not out yet, sir," say the men. At the moment 
bounding along Coventry Street come half a dozen newsmen 
and boys, their arms full of "special S/audards." "Here y'ar, 
sir ! " they cry ; " the great debate in Parliament ! " " Special — 
Chancellor Hexcheker's statement ! " The piles of papers dis- 
appear with magical rapidity. In a few minutes every man in 
the street has a journal in his hands ; and every man goes 
straightway to the light of a shop window to read the latest 
news ; that is every man who does not go straightway into a bar 
or restaurant to read it quietly over " a drink." It only contains 
the commencement of the debate, the few introductory remarks ; 
but the latest dispatches from the seat of war are full of vague 
and disturbing reports, and sinister explanations of Russia's 
" strange conduct " in still " delaying the armistice, and keeping 
the terms of peace secret." I turn into an adjacent bar. The 
men are full of the latest news. " England is sold again," 
says one of the bystanders. "Serves us right for trusting to 
the w^ords of England's enemies." I go home to dine, and in an 
hour or two later drive up into the gloomy shades of the distant 
City, under the shadow of the Bank of England, to send my 
cable dispatch to America, by which time midnight falls upon 


the great town, and leaves the busy streets of the City proper 
silent and deserted ; except in respect of a few solitary skaters, 
who fly about mysteriously on Plympton's rollers where the 
roads are asphalted ; a stray bicyclist, with lamps upon his 
locomotive like a pair of red eyes ; a few cabs, a late omnibus, 
and the members of the City police force. 




Reminiscences of Stormy Times — Edward Lloyd at Salisbury Square — 
Richardson's Printing-office and •* Pamela'* — Historic Ground — Lloyd's 
Weekly Xewspaper — A Novel Mode of Advertising — Fighting "The 
Trade** — The Two Jerrolds, Douglas and Blanchard — Tht Budget — 
Sunday Journalism — Dr. Sebastian Evans and The People — Hanison 
Ainsworth and Novels in Newspapers. 


Nothing so well illustrates the rapidity of modem progress as 
the fact that the links between the light and the darkness to-day 
are living men, who, if not in all cases the authors of our advance- 
ment, were assistants and spectators of the scientific and 
mechanical triumphs which converted the eighteenth-century 
waggon into the nineteenth-century railway-carriage, the hand- 
press into the steam-machine, the dull sheet of stale dispatches 
into the newspaper which reflects the daily life of the world, and 
wields a |X)wer co-equal with that of kings and parliaments. 
Sitting behind three locomotive engines that were making their 
way round the Alleghany mountains one day last year my mind 
wandered back to Tapton House, Chesterfield, where the father 
of locomotive travelling patted my head with his great manly 
hand when I was a very little boy. The railway is such a 
tremendous and substantial fact, it almost seems impossible that 
I could have known George Stephenson. It is wonderful how 


close wc are to a dead past which knew nothing of railways, 
telegraphs, ocean steamers and a free press. 

It is only about twenty years since my father laid down one 
of the first printing-machines, and started the first penny news- 
paper in Derbyshire, in sight of George Stephenson's windows 
at Tapton. I ought, therefore, not to have been surprised, one 
day last year, to find the original founder of the cheap press 
alive and well. Almost my first recollections are of country 
barns and pastoral gateways bearing the printed legend, Lloyd's 
Neivspaper, Recently, as I made my way to Salisbury Square, 
dim visions of a boyhood when reform demonstrations, bread 
riots and Chartist declarations were talked about by grown men, 
filled my mind and started many speculations as to the author 
of the Lloyd's Neivspaper which those same provincial politicians 
were wont to speak of, some with admiration, some with con- 
tumely and contempt. 

Is was always a strong, out-spoken, Liberal paper, this pioneer 
of the cheap press. Had the originator written to me, or was 
" Edward Lloyd " his son 1 Should I really see the mutilator 
and "utiliser" of the king's penny in the flesh, or merely the in- 
heritor of his penny property } Was ever the power of pence so 
splendidly demonstrated as in the penny press } After inquiring 
for Mr. Lloyd at the palatial offices of The Daily Chronicle, I 
was directed to 12 Salisbury Court, and there, in an unpreten- 
tious little room, I found Mr. Edward Lloyd, a hale, hearty, 
middle-aged, florid-complexioned, white-haired gentleman. He 
introduced me to his son, a stalwart young fellow, who was 
amused at the surprise I expressed at not finding the head ot 
the firm a tottering old gentleman of the aspect usually 
thought characteristic of Father Time and the venerable Parr. 

Mr. Lloyd is old enough to have originated the cheap press, 
and young enough to be vigorously occupied in establishing the 
newest daily paper. Responding to a remark about the literary 


interest of the locality in which I found him, he said, "This 
house was Richardson's printing-office ; in this room he wrote 
' Pamela,' and here Oliver Goldsmith acted as his reader." 
The old familiar story: you are treading on historic ground 
every foot you move in London, historic not in a mere anti- 
quarian sense, nor in the narrow meaning of age being historic, 
but in the breadth of human interest and universal fame. There 
is not a court hereabouts but it is linked with the history of all 

( I'hotographed by Kradelle, 246 Regent Streel, London.) 

that is great and glorious in English letters, from Shakespeare to 
Hood, from Fielding to Thackeray, from Caxton, the first English 
printer, to his great successors, and from The English Mercuric 
to 7"//!? Daily News. " I can show you Richardson's lease of 
these very premises," said Mr. Lloyd presently, and turning over 
the deeds which convey to him a large extent of the local free- 
holds {now strangely connected by passages and subways from 
Salisbury Court to Whitefriars), he handed me the parchment. 
It was a lease dated 30th May, 1770, from Mrs. Jennings to Mr, 


Richardson, the printer-novelist's signature a bolder one than 
would seem characteristic of the gentle tediousness of " Pamela." 
Mr. Lloyd's freeholds and leaseholds are a curious mixture of 
properties, extending into Whitefriars, under streets and over 
streets, and they are all devoted to the mechanical requirements 
ol Lloyds Newspaper and The Daily Chronicle, The very latest 
inventions in the generation and use of steam, the newest ideas 
of Hoe in the way of printing, are pressed into the service of 
these two papers. Colonel Hoe is Mr. Lloyd's ideal machinist ; 
Mr. Lloyd is Colonel Hoe's ideal newspaper proprietor. 

" Have you ever been to America ? " I asked. 

*' No ; I had once made up my mind to go, and had fixed 
upon the ship," Mr. Lloyd answered — "the Arctic, I think she 
was called. Douglas Jerrold was against my going, and per- 
suaded me air he could not to venture upon it. * But,' said he, 
* if you must go, give this play into Jim Wallack's own hands.' 
He gave me the manuscript of ' The Rent Day,' which had been 
produced at Drury Lane. The object of my going was to see 
Hoe, and arrange for two machines on certain revised terms, so 
that if one broke down, I should have another to fall back upon. 
Just before the time for sailing I received a letter from Hoe 
telling me that I could have just all I wanted. In consequence 
of that letter, I did not go. The ship I was booked for went to 
the bottom." 

Mr. Lloyd's story has never been quite exactly told. Briefly 
it is this. As early as 1829, when he was only fourteen, he was 
strongly imbued with Liberal opinions, and with the idea of 
starting a " free and independent newspaper " for their advocacy. 
There was a fourpenny stamp duty on each paper, and in due 
time Edward Lloyd laboured hard, with others, in the direction 
of its reduction. He started a newspaper, and issued it without 
a Government stamp ; so likewise did other London printers ; 
but, after a short struggle, they succumbed to legal proceedings 


for their suppression. In order to keep the question of unstamped 
papers before the public, Mr. Lloyd started a monthly unstamped 
journal, believing he could legally issue such a publication ; but 
the Stamp-office authorities stifled it with crushing promptitude, 
though it turned out afterwards that he was within the law, Mr. 
Charles Dickens having, at a later date, issued a monthly paper 
on similar lines. In September, 1842, Mr. Lloyd published 
Lloyd's Penny Illustrated Newspaper, consisting chiefly of reviews 
of books, notices of theatres, and literary selections, thus keeping, 
as he thought, just outside the pale of what the law designated 
a newspaper. Within three months the Stamp-office discovered 
what they regarded as a few lines of news in the literature of 
the journal; and they gave the proprietor notice that he must 
either stamp his paper or stop it. He chose the former course, 
and continued the paper at twopence until January, 1843, when 
he enlarged it to eight pages of five columns each (about the 
size of an eight-page Echo), called it Lloyds Weekly London 
Neivspaper, and charged twopence-halfpenny for it. During the 
same year he again increased its size, and sold it at threepence. 
At this time the general price of newspapers was sixpence, and 
they carried a penny stamp duty. Mr. Lloyd's innovation met 
with the determined opposition of the newsagents. They one 
and all refused to sell the paper, unless the owner allowed them 
the same profit per sheet which they obtained on the sixpenny 
journals. An offer of thirty per cent, was scoffed at, and " the 
Trade " entered into a conspiracy to put down the threepenny 
weekly. The sale was considerably retarded by this opposition ; 
but Lloyd pushed it by advertisements and otherwise, and the 
excellence and cheapness of the newspaper were attractions " the 
Trade " could not annihilate. One of Lloyd's methods of making 
it known was ingenious, not to say daring. He had a stamping 
machine constructed for embossing pennies with the name and 
price of his journal, and the fact that it could be obtained " post 


free." The announcement was made in a neat circle round the 
coin on both sides. The machine turned out two hundred and 
fifty an hour, and Lloyd used up all the pennies he could lay 
his hands on. The Times drew attention to the defacement of 
his Majesty's coinage, and thus gave the paper a cheap and im- 
portant advertisement. Parliament passed an act against the 
mutilation of the currency. The affair helped to make the 
threepenny paper known, and in spite of "the Trade," which 
continued to oppose it, holding meetings and combining against 
it in every way, it progressed in circulation and influence. 
From a sale of 33,000 in [848, it rose year by year to 90,000 a 
week in 1853. Two years later than this, Lloyd had lived to 
sec the most ardent desire of his life accomplished— the passing 
of an Act abolishing the stamp duty, and the establishment of a 
really free and unfettered press. From this period dates the 
enormous success of Lloyd's Newspaper, The difficulty of pro- 
duction was the next serious question. Lloyd put . himself 
in communication with Messrs. Hoe and Co., of New York, 
which led to his introduction of their rotary printing-machine. 
The success of this new invention, exemplified in Lloyd's offices, 
elicited a general acknowledgment of its superiority over all 
others, and " The Hoe " was at once adopted, not only in the 
chief London offices, but by the leading newspaper proprietors of 
the country, and in Ireland and Scotland. Wherever there was 
a journal with a large circulation, there " The Hoe " became a 

From a sale of 97,000 in June, 1855, Lloyds Newspaper rose to 
170,000 in September, 1861. In anticipation of three-halfpence 
per pound being taken off the price of paper, though it made a 
very trifling difference on a single sheet, Mr. Lloyd determined 
to reduce the price of his paper from twopence to a penny, 
depending upon an enormous sale and his advertisements for 
profit. ** The Trade " foretold his ruin now, and looked forward 



to it as a certainty. There is no institution so pig-headed as that 
which is called " the Trade *' in England. Happily there arc 
always a few irreconcilables outside the ring, or adventurers who 
cannot be bound by ordinary rules, or " the Trade " might stop 
all progress. It was "the Trade" that stood in George 
Stephenson's way for long weary years. But when once "the 
Trade " is fairly conquered, there is among the members of it 
just as much unanimity in accepting the new order of things as 
in the original opposition ; this, and the renegades who keep 
open a sort of by-way to success, constitute the ultimate safety 
of good enterprises. 

At a penny, Mr. Lloyd's paper went up in circulation from 
170,000 a week in 1861, to 347,000 in 1863, to 383,489 in 1864, 
and to 412,080 in 1865, and so on, until Hoe's splendid 
machinery no longer kept pace with the demand. Accordingly 
the ingenuity of the firm was once more taxed, not by com- 
petition with other makers, but to eclipse their own good work. 
They were equal to the occasion. The result was the production 
of the first great web machine, printing from a reel of paper two 
sheds oi Lloyd's Nrcvspaper, Again complete success attended 
Hoe's work, and machines on the new system were at once 
ordered by The Daily Telegraph and The Standard, and three 
additional ones were made for Mr. Lloyd, the four printing at the 
rate of 90,000 copies per hour. In 1879, the extraordinary sale 
of Lloyd's Newspaper was announced, in a certified declaration of 
Turquand, Youngs and Co., famous London accountants, to 
have reached an average of 612,902 copies a week ; and notwith- 
standing the competition of the daily press, the sale goes on 
increasing. Mr. Lloyd set the example of extensively advertising 
a newspaper, and has often spent as much aS;^300aweek in 
" posting and billing." During the Lancashire cotton famine a 
subscription list was opened for the receipt of small sums by 
Lloyd's ; and the profits on the " extra sale," beyond the average 


circulation, for the weeks ending December 7, 14, and 21, 1862, 
were announced as contributions to the fund. They reached 
£2QO, and the fund in all. from September, 1862, to July, 1863, 
amounted to ;f 3,676 14?. ^d. 


Douglas Jerrold's association with this remarkable journal 
materially added to its popularity and strength. The announce- 
ment of his name was made in the seventh number of Lloyd's 
Weekly London Newspaper in these terms : " The editorial de- 
partment will be confided to a gentleman whose pen, we doubt 
not, will be speedily recognised and cordially welcomed by his 
old friends the masses." On the death of Jerrold, his son 
Blanchard came to the editorial throne, and his name still 
occupies the place of his father's on the title-page of the paper. 
Mr. Blanchard Jerrold is among the most industrious journalists 
and authors of his time. There is hardly a paper or periodical 
in which he has not at some time or other done excellent work. 
He is the author of quite a library of books, historical, political 
and imaginative. " The Christian Vagabond " is characterised by a 
sweet and gentle philosophy which, contrasted with the political 
vigour of some of the author's other works, gives evidence of a 
rare and marked versatility of style. His " Life of Napoleon HI." 
is the most valuable of existing contributions to modern French 
history. I do not think Mr. Blanchard Jerrold's father had a very 
lively faith at first in the success of the newspaper which his 
name and work were destined so materially to advance. Could 
he revisit the glimpses of the moon, what would he say to the 
fact that Mr. Lloyd not only makes the paper on which he prints, 
but grows it ? In the office where Richardson used to stimulate 
the early rising of his printers by hiding half-crowns among the 
type, and also distributing fruit to the earliest comers, there 

o 2 


hangs a large photograph of Lloyd's Algerian grass farm, with 
labourers busy gathering and packing the "esparto" for his 
paper-mills at Bow, Even The Times does not make its own 
paper. TIte Telegraph has a mill of its own ; but the enterprise 
of Mr. Lloyd in this direction has no parallel in the world. The 
grass is imported here in ships chartered by Mr. Lloyd. The 
vessels are unloaded in dock, near Hlackwall, into barges which 
navigate the river Lea, the cargoes being finally deposited on 

Lloyd's paper-mill wharf at Bow, Here the esparto is stored in 
enormous stacks. The mill embodies the newest systems of 
manufacture. It represents a long story and an interesting train 
of thought — the conversion of a bundle of African grass lying for 
shipment in Algeria into a bundle of newspapers on a news- 
agent's counter in England. 

Mr. Blanchard Jerrold. in a picturesque biography of his father, 
has told the story of the brilliant failure oi Douglas Jerrold's 


Weekly Newspaper^ the forerunner of Mr. Lloyd's success. It 
was started in the summer of 1846. A popular feature of its 
pages was, "The Barber's Chair," under which heading a 
dialogue was carried on by a barber and his customers on the 
affairs of the week. Later, when the paper began to decline and 
Jerrold*s pen grew tired, the news-boys were wont to peep 
between the damp sheets to see if the barber was in evidence 
before they gave their orders. "The leaders," says the bio- 
grapher, " were strong outspeakings on the Liberal side — against 
all aristocratic pretension, against hanging, against flogging, 
against the Hugh M*Neales and others. The hammer came 
with a heavy thump, for the smith was in downright earnest. 
*The Radical literature of England,' one of his critics has justly 
remarked, ' with few exceptions, was of a prosaic character. The 
most famous school of Radicalism is utilitarian and systematic. 
Douglas was, emphatically, neither. He was impulsive, epigram- 
matic, sentimental. He dashed gaily against an institution, like 
a picador at a bull. He never sat down, like the regular workers 
of his party, to calculate the expenses of monarchy or the 
extravagance of the civil list. He had no notion of any sort of 
* economy.* I don't know that he had ever taken up political 
science seriously, or that he had any preference for one form of 
government over another. I repeat, his Radicalism was that of 
a humourist. He despised big-wigs and pomp of all sorts, and, 
above all, humbug and formalism. But his Radicalism was 
important as a sign that our institutions are ceasing to be 
picturesque ; of which, if you consider his nature, you will see 
that his Radicalism %vas a sign. And he did service to his cause. 
Not an abuse, whether from the corruption of something old, or 
the injustice of something new, but Douglas was out against it with 
his sling. He threw his thought into some epigram which 'stuck.' " 
The paper began to break down after the first six months, and 
died at the end of about two years, leaving its editor saddled 


with a heavy debt, which was only paid off at his death by 
means of a policy of insurance on his life. When Mr. Lloyd 
offered Douglas Jerrold £i,ooo a year, without risk of any kind, 
to edit Lloyd* s Newspaper, he saw in the position a certain 
amount of ease and leisure. " The acres of paper he had covered 
— the dramas he had thrown out by the dozen — the fair successes 
he had achieved — and the position of honour in which he now 
found himself in intellectual society, all tended to make him less 
prodigal of his ink. He had much to say, however, to the 
people. Shams were still abroad to be battered and annihilated ; 
there were oppressions still to beat down in behalf of the public ; 
the gibbet still reared its sable head amid *mobs of yelling 
savages before Newgate ; the people over the water were under 
the iron thumb of the despot of the 2nd of December ; and in 
the highways of England were still pluralists and hoarding 
bishops. From his stern independence no minister could wring 
the shadow of a promise. He was said to be blind to his own 
interests ; but he was true to his own noble, passionate heart." 
Mr. Blanchard Jerrold remembers with a laudable pleasure that 
in 1854, when his father was prostrated with illness, he found 
comfort in leaving his weekly editorial task to him. From that 
time until his death the accomplished son aided the illustrious 
father at his desk, and finally succeeded him in the editorial 
chair of the oldest penny paper, outside which he has done a 
world of work in almost every department of letters and 


The very mention of Lloyd's Xeiuspaper opens up a wide field 
of interest touching the class of weekly journals that register 
enormous circulations in London and the provinces, such as The 
Dispatch, T/ie Weekly Times, and The Neu*s of the World, 
There is a paper called The Budget which is hardly seen at all in 


London, but is sold by tens of thousands in the North of 
England. It is almost a household word in Lancashire, supply- 
ing to many working-class homes their Saturday night and 
Sunday reading. It is to a great extent what the American 
papers call " a story paper," consisting chiefly of romantic tales. 
In the United States the daily journals are published on 
Sundays, with the addition of supplements that make their 
Sunday editions very attractive. Tfie TimeSy Tribune, Herald, 
Star, Sun of New York, issue papers on Sunday that cover the 
entire field, for the current week, of literature, art, science, politics, 
cooking, preaching and general news. The English dailies, on 
the other hand, do not appear on Sundays. They leave the 
market open to The Observer, a thoughtful high-class political 
journal, edited by Mr. Edward Dicey ; The Sunday Times, which 
for many years counted upon its staff such men as Mr. Joseph 
Knight, Mr. Henry Dunphie and Mr. Ashby Sterry ; The Weekly 
Times ; and The Referee, a sporting and dramatic journal, edited 
by Mr. Sampson, formerly of Fun, and having as its principal 
contributor Mr. George R. Sims, whose social and political 
ballads have materially advanced its circulation. Mr. Sims has 
recently come to the front as a dramatic author. His "Lights 
o* London " is generally pronounced by the critics to be the best 
original melodrama of modern days. After being associated 
with The Sunday Times for twenty years, Mr. Joseph Knight has 
lately accepted the appointment of dramatic critic on The People, a 
new weekly journal, under the editorship of Dr. Sebastian Evans, 
who conducted The Birmingham Daily Gazette in its palmiest 
days, and with Mr. Sampson Lloyd unsuccessfully contested 
Birmingham for a seat on the Conservative side of the House of 
Commons. The Sunday Times, from a high-priced semi-literary 
paper, has entered the lists of popular penny journalism, and it 
has a rival in The People, politically and otherwise. There are a 
few points of special interest connected with Tlie Sunday Times. 


It was started in 1822 by Mr. Daniel Whittle Harvey, who was 
for many years member of Parliament for Southwark. He sold 
it eventually to Mr. Valpy, publisher, of Red Lion Court, for 
whom it was edited by Mr. Clarkson. Mr. Valpy transferred a 

[rholnErni'lu-il ''y 'I'wyiiion and Sun, High Street, Ramsgali^.] 

share in the property to Mr. Colburn, the predecessor of the well- 
known publishing firm of Hurst and Blackett. Through Mr. Col- 
burn's influence, Mr. Gaspey (author of "The Gipsy" and other 
novels, long since forgotten) became editor, and died in harness 
at eighty-three. Mr. Levy, father of The Telegraph chief, in course 
of time, became one of the proprietors. He was succeeded by 
Mr. H. T. Smith, from whom Mr. SearJe purchased it. Under 
Mr. Searle the paper was very efficiently managed, and counted 
upon its staff the gentlemen previously mentioned. At that 


time the editor was Mr. Henry N. Barnet, a clever and capable 
journalist, who among a clique of friends and fellow- workers was 
regarded as "the Dr. Johnson of his day." He was a good 
conversationalist, a cultured writer, and an eloquent speaker. He 
was an intimate friend of the late George Dawson, and prior to 
his appointment on The Sunday Times he edited, with consider- 
able skill, but* with no financial success, The Bristol Advertiser^ 
a weekly paper started to share the local ground with Tfu Bristol 
Times, The Bristol Mirror and The Bristol Merairy, That was 
before the advent of The Western Daily Press, the example of 
whose success converted these papers into dailies. T lie Bristol 
Advertiser has long since "gone under." Mr. Grant in his 
" Newspaper Press " states that the first regular novel which 
appeared in any weekly newspaper was published in Tlie 
Sunday Times, " It was a work of fiction by Mr. Harrison 
Ainsworth, for which, if my memory be not at fault, he got 
;f 500, with the right reserved to him for republishing it in the 
usual form of three volumes. I do not remember the title of 
the work, but have some idea it was ' Old St. Paul's.* This fact I 
remember quite as distinctly as if it had been a matter of yester- 
day — that Mr. Harrison Ainsworth wrote to mc before the first 
chapter to the effect that he felt he was making, as an author, a 
great experiment in undertaking to publish a novel in a weekly 
newspaper. It was indeed a great experiment, and proved 
injurious to his reputation as being at that time a popular 
author." Times have changed wonderfully within the past few 
years. Some of the best known novels of the present day have 
made their first appearance in the columns of provincial news- 
papers.* Most of the weekly journals just mentioned publish 

• Chiefly through ihe enterprise of Mr. Tillotson, of Bolton, " purveyor of fiction " 
to the provincial press, hardly a weekly paper appears in the country that has not 
among its general contents a continuous story, written by popular authors, of the 
rank of Wilkie Collins, Miss Braddon, Mrs. E. Lynn Linton, Mr. Buchanan, Mr. 
Manville Fenn, the Hon. Lewis Wingficld, James Pjiyn and Mr. Farjeon. Mr. 


Sunday editions, as also does The Era^ which is often spoken of 
as " the actor's Bible." It was originally started as a sort of 
trade journal, in the same interest as that which The Morning 
Advertiser represents. In its early days it was Liberal in politics, 
and was edited by Mr. Leitch Ritchie, who at one time occupied 
the editorial chair of Chambers s Edinburgh Journal. Mr. Ritchie, 
however, had not supreme control of Tlie Era, His work and 
policy were supervised by a " committee of management." This 
led to his resignation, and finally Mr. Frederick Ledger obtained 
possession of the paper. On becoming sole proprietor he 
changed its politics, and improved the character of its intelligence. 
In his hands it paid more and more attention to theatrical news, 
and gradually became a journal of intercommunication between 
managers and actors, and an authority upon the current history 
of the stage. Mr. Edward Ledger succeeded his father in the 
property and management. The technically worded announce- 
ments in its advertising columns have often been quoted in 
Punch, to be reproduced in the " variety " columns of country 
papers and American journals. 

Tillotson buys novels, and by arrangement with many leading papers publishes a 
work simultaneously in various centres, at a subscription from each journal, varying for 
a first-class writer from ^30 tO;f6o and /^ 70. Mr. Payn received as much as;^i,200 
for the newspaper rights of one of his novels, under this combination. The I^eeds 
Mercury and The Glasgow Herald have not joined this provincial confederacy. As a 
rule they " commission " their own novels. Latterly The Herald has been offering 
prizes ** for the best serial stories." Mr. Black has written specially iox The Herald^ 
and Mr. Payn for The Mercury. 

( 203 ) 

XII. . 



The Athenaum — Sir Charles Dilke— ^^//if Life — The late Serjeant Cox 
and his Newspaper Enterprises — The Field and The Queen — Church 
Papers — The Guardian and its Chief Contributors — The Rise and 
Progress of Trade Journalism — The Ironmonger, 


Class journalism, and trade journalism, to a great extent, may 
be regarded as modern institutions. This can certainly be 
said of the last-mentioned feature of the newspaper world. The 
most notable of the class papers is probably The Athenceum^ 
nominally conducted by its proprietor. Sir Charles Wentworth 
Dilk6, M.P., but practically edited by Mr. MacColl, who has the 
reputation of being a scholarly man and a capable critic. The 
AthencBum was founded in 1828 as a journal of literature, art, 
music and the drama, its projector and first proprietor being Mr. 
James Silk Buckingham. It presently passed into the hands of 
Mr. Charles Wentworth Dilke, father of the first and grandfather 
of the present baronet. Mr. Hepworth Dixon edited the paper 
for many years, and wrote some of his best critical and historical 
essays in its front pages. Mr. Dixon died a few years ago, 
leaving behind him a series of notable works and a reputation 
for great independence of character. The Athenceinn is an 


acknowledged mentor in the literary and art world, and is 
recognised as the special organ of the publishers and booksellers, 
whose announcements in its advertising columns are both valuable 
to the journal and interesting to the public. Its responsible 
director has made a considerable mark in politics. He is best 
known in America for his two volumes recording the results of 
his visit to the United States and other English-speaking 
countries. " Greater Britain " had a large sale on both sides of the 

(rholi^rai'hed by ihe l^mdon Sltrioscopjt and Photographic Comp.'Uly,] 

Atlantic. His chief legislative work has been the direct election 
of school boards by the ratepayers, which he carried as an 
amendment to Mr. Forster's famous Educational Bill ; the con- 
ferring of the municipal franchise on women ; and the extension 
of the hours of polling at Parliamentary elections in London. 
Sir Charles, though a baronet, has expressed himself in favour of 
a Republican form of government in preference to that of a 
Constitutional Monarchy. He has been attacked for this decla- 


ration, and it was made the chief ground of opposition to his re- 
election for Chelsea. His success at the head of the poll was 
therefore regarded by many as more than usually significant of 
the spread of extreme Radical views in England. Mr. Joseph 
Cowen, the member for Newcastle, has always been known for 
his Republican sentiments, but he recently took an opportunity 
to express an opinion that the constitution of England, as at 
present established and interpreted, is sufficient for the widest 
aspirations of freedom. These are not his words, but they 
represent the spirit of them, and Sir Charles Dilke would 
probably agree with Mr. John Bright that monarchy in the 
reign of Queen Victoria needs no defence. There is only 
one man in the three kingdoms who has ever refused election 
to Parliament because he could not conscientiously take the 
oath of allegiance to the Queen, and that is Mr. Davitt, the 
founder of the Land League. Mr. Bradlaugh tried to take 
his seat without subscribing the ordinary recognition of God 
and Queen, and found " lions in his path." Sir Charles Dilke is 
proprietor of T/ie Gardener's Chronicle, T/ie Agricultural Gazette, 
and Notes and Queries, and journalism is honoured in his active 
association with the press. 

The Spectator was founded by Mr. Rintoul, a Scotch journalist 
of high qualification for editorial work. He conducted the 
paper until he died in i860. He was thoroughly conversant 
with the political movements of his time, and was kept specially 
informed of the intentions and hopes of the Liberal Party. At 
the founder's death the paper was bought by Mr. Meredith 
Townsend (who had lived some time in India) and Mr. R. H. 
Hutton, who are understood to collaborate in the editorship. 
They also both write for the paper, and indeed are credited 
with its chief and best work. Tlie Spectator is probably liked 
more in America for its political essays and its current criticisms 
on foreign affairs than it is in England. It is very constantly 


quoted by the leading newspapers of America, while at home it 
has a high reputation for its thoughtful and honest reviews of 
books. As a class paper, largely devoted to literature, it ranks, 
with publishers, next to The AthencBum, while its polemical and 
critical essays, political and social, give its opinions a higher 
value in the estimation of cultured Liberals than those of its 
more cynical contemporary, Tlu Saturday Revieiv, Each of the 
three mentioned papers may be noted as a scholarly and high- 
class representative of the weekly press. Not one of the least 
attractive features of The Spectator is the frank and liberal 
consideration shown to correspondents who address the editor 
apropos of subjects suggested in his own columns, or having 
regard to " burning questions " of the time. 

The Saturday Revieic; a journal of wide popularity, not only 
in England, but in the United States,' was started by the Right 
Hon. A. J. Beresford-Hopc. Having failed to make The Morning 
Chronicle successful as an organ of the High Church and Peelite 
Party, he resolved to put his money into a weekly journal ; one 
of the special missions of which was to assail, and if not pull down 
The Times, at least " to hold its tyranny in check." The history of 
journalism is probably not without examples of papers that have 
dashed themselves to pieces against the rock of Printing-house 
Square. The Saturday, however, neither hurt itself nor The 
Times, and soon learnt to be content with a success that did not 
include the destruction of " the leading journal." Mr. T. D. Cooke 
was editor of the paper until he died in or about the year 1870. 
He made a fortune out of The Saturday, built a house at 
Tintagcl with his hardly earned money, and died there almost 
as soon as he had began to reside in it. At his death he was 
succeeded in the editorial chair by Mr. P. Harwood, a gentleman 
who had for many years been his " right-hand." Some of the 
wisest and readiest pens of the time have contributed to The 
Saturday. In his younger days Lord Salisbury wrote for it ; 


so also did Lord Strangford. Mr. Edward Freeman is a constant 
writer in The Saturday, and the succession of distinguished con- 
tributors is strikingly maintained, every writer for its critical 
pages appearing to fall easily into its characteristic style. The 
Right Hon. A. J. Beresford-Hope, M.P., the originator of the 
paper, was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. He graduated B.A. in 184 1. In ecclesiastical and art 
movements he has done good service as a champion of Gothic 
architecture. From 1865 to 1867 he was President of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects. He sits for Cambridge University 
in the House of Commons as an Independent Conservative. As 
an author he is best known for his " English Cathedrals of the 
Nineteenth Centurj'." His wife is Lady Mildred Cecil, daughter 
of James, second Marquis of Salisbury. 

The newspapers devoted to sports and pastimes are many and 
influential. Belts Life, The Sporting Gazette, T/ie Sporting Times, 
Sporting Life, and Sporting Opinion are among the most familiar 
of them. Of late years Bell's Life has several times changed 
hands. The accession of Mr. Charles Greenwood to the chief 
proprietary rights in the paper was celebrated by the staff only a 
short time since ; but he has recently stepped out in favour of 
Mr. Blakely, proprietor of The Manchester Sporting Chronicle, who 
has purchased Belts Life for £7,000, There was a time when this 
journal must have paid its owners every year a profit considerably 
beyond this sum. But since Belts palmy days it has had to 
encounter much vigorous competition. Moreover, many features 
of this famous journal have been taken up by new papers, 
gradually, as it were, leaving it to the mere turf competition 
of sprightlier rivals. The Field, Fishing Gazette, and Land and 
Water cover the higher class departments of Belts Life, and 
other papers, more closely devoted to racing, have trespassed 
upon certain of its specialities, while the downfall of the P.R. 
has cut it out of those sensational reports which, in the Ring's 


last days, were even more graphically described in the London 
daily papers. The account of the fight between Heenan and 
Sayers, which appeared in Tlie Times, is one of the most 
stirring examples of descriptive ref>orting of our time. 


The late Serjeant Cox had a peculiar instinct in regard to class 
journalism. He was a remarkable man in many ways. His 
death was characteristic of his life. He was a busy man and died 
in harness at seventy. Deputy Assistant Judge of the Middlesex 
Sessions, he went home after a busy day, dined, and shortly 
afterwards sallied forth with his two daughters to take part in a 
" penny reading" for a charitable object. He was an authority 
on elocution. He had written a capital work upon the subject, 
and he always felt a pleasure in publicly demonstrating the 
value of reading aloud. Selecting " Pickwick " for his illustra- 
tion, he had delighted a large audience and returned home to 
his pleasant house at Hendon. His daughters retired to the 
drawing-room. He sat down before the fire in his library, and 
a little while afterwards was found, on his knees, dead. He had 
been seized with an attack of apoplexy. At ten the next 
morning he had appointed to take a serious matter of business 
in Court. Serjeant Cox was known in America as a Spiritualist 
of unshaken faith in the phenomena supposed to have been 
demonstrated more particularly by Mr. Home, for whom 
Mr. Cox had the highest regard. He wrote many learned 
and logical pamphlets in defence pf the principles of Spirit- 
ualism, and was looked up to by believers as a solid and worthy 
authority on that and kindred subjects. He was President of the 
Psychological Society, and his inaugural address in that capacity 
was an able exposition of the faith that was in him. But it is 
outside this region of law, of science and of philosophy that he 


was most remarkable. He could hardly be called a journalist, 
in the technical acceptation of the term ; and yet it was in 
journalism that he was a factor of noted skill and judgment. 
Fortunes are oftener lost in starting newspapers than in buying 
failing properties. Just as new companies purchase the remains 
of a joint-stock concern that is wound-up, and make a quick and 
ready income, so the second or third buyers of struggling 
journals frequently step in at the moment when all that is 
required for success is fresh capital and renewed managerial 
vigour. Serjeant Cox had a peculiar prescience in regard to 
newspapers. He had the faculty of judging what the public 
wants, and a keen scent for unoccupied ground in the broad field 
of journalistic enterprise. He started The Lmo Times, edited 
it for many years, and almost from the first it brought him in a 
large income. Some quarter of a century ago. The Field ; or. 
Country Gentleman s Newspaper, was started, if not by Bradbury 
and Evans, they eventually became proprietors of it. Mark 
Lemon edited it, and there were hunting and other illustrations 
in it by Leech. Mr. Benjamin Webster, the actor, had a share 
in it, and ultimately it became his sole property. The paper 
struggledon, but without quite fulfilling its right programme, and 
Mr. Serjeant Cox, settling in his mind what its platform should 
be, bought it for a very small sum of money. Mr. Walsh, a 
surgeon, practising at Worcester, had just then published a book 
on dogs and a work of a kindred character, which showed a 
broad knowledge of country life. Mr. Cox, casting about for an 
editor of personal acquaintance with rural sports and pastimes, 
selected Mr. Walsh, who gave up his practice as a surgeon, and 
became director of Tlie Field, Under him sub-editors or editors 
of special departments were appointed, and travellers and others 
were invited to send in accounts of the sports of foreign lands, 
together with articles on natural history, or matters of general 
interest to country gentlemen. Reporters were appointed to 



supply reliable and late accounts of agricultural, sporting, 
hunting, racing, yachting, shooting and other events ; and The 
Field became a mirror of the urban and rural world. It grew in 
importance and popularity, and has for many years been paying 
an annual income to its proprietor of not less (and probably 
much more) than ;f 20,000. About eighteen years ago. The 
Queen (a ladies' newspaper), started by Mr. S. O. Beeton, was 
a losing property, as most journals devoted to the single interest 
of the fair sex were in those days. Mr. Cox had his views 
of the special line which ought to be pursued by Tlie Queeti. 
He bought the paper for an insignificant sum, took it to 
Tlie Field office, and made The Queen for ladies what T/ie 
Field was for gentlemen — a complete magazine of all their 
practical wants and requirements, as well as a useful reflec- 
tion of fashion, an organ of cookery and receipts, a reporter 
of the doings of society, and, in fact, a complete ladies' 
paper. As months and years sped on, the conductors, under 
his direction, improved its illustrations, introduced the system 
of "cut-paper patterns," gave at Christmas coloured pictures, 
promoted advertising by notices of new inventions in con- 
nection with domestic economy and women's dress, and after 
the first two years The Queen became a rapidly paying concern, 
and was not returning less than ;^ 10,000 a year to its proprietor 
when he died. These are only two out of several newspaper 
enterprises with which he was connected, and in every case he 
was successful ; his income from this class of property alone being 
variously estimated at from ;f 40,000 to £ 50,000 a year. The Ex- 
change and Mart was a new venture of Mr. Cox's, springing out 
of the overgrown department of ** exchange " in The Queen. It is 
one of the modern curiosities of London journalism, and a very 
profitable undertaking. Serjeant Cox had other sources of 
income, and was, indeed, a rich man ; yet he worked all the 
time at his profession of the law, and for the last nine or 


ten years of his life, among other serious responsibilities, he 
acted as Judge at the Middlesex Sessions, fulfilling the 
onerous duties of the position with close and careful punctu- 
ality, and with no little distinction. 


The polemical, religious and Church papers are a numerous 
class. At the head of them may be counted the semi-clerical 
Guardian, a carefully written and scholarly publication, sub- 
edited in its way as well as the defunct Express, an evening 
paper formerly issued by The Daily News. The Guardian was 
started in January 1846, the work of a combination of young 
Oxford men (then regarded as very High Churchmen), who 
projected the paper at a Sunday informal meeting in the 
rooms of Mr. T. H. Haddon, barrister, of Lincoln's Inn. Their 
idea was " to reform the Church and make its machinery 
practical." Among the first contributors to the paper were 
the two brothers, T. H. Haddon and Alfred Haddon, Sir 
Roundell Palmer (now Lord Selborne), Mr. J. D. Coleridge 
(now Lord Coleridge), and Mr. E. W. Freeman. The editor 
is Mr. Martin R. Sharp, who began his training on Tlie Oxford 
Herald, Despite his long innings he shows no lack of grip. 
Tlu Guardian is still an influential and widely read journal. A 
Gladstonite, it has stood by the great Liberal leader, but with- 
out servility. Its reviews of books are, as a rule, thoughtful 
and well written essays. Most of its critics have been Oxford 
men. Keble and Pusey often wrote letters in its correspon- 
dence columns. Its " Table Talk " is an attractive feature. 
From 1865 to 1870 most of it was the work of Mr. E. Walford, 
author of "Our County Families," and editor of the most 
recent of learned serial publications, The Antiquarian Magazine 
and Bibliographer, 

P 2 



The history of trade journalism presents some singularly in- 
teresting and instructive features. What may be called trade 
and technical journalism essentially belongs to modern progress. 
Twenty-five years ago there was not a single newspaper of this 
class in existence, with two exceptions, one in England and one 
in the United States. During the interval these journals have 
multiplied exceedingly. Within the past few years their number 
has become so great that they now represent almost every con- 
ceivable profession, trade and industry — from civil engineering 
down to chimney-sweeping.* To those who have never bestowed 
any thought upon this matter the mere existence of these 
journals may seem paradoxical and precarious, yet a little re- 
flection will serve to show that virtually they have the strongest 
possible claims to the support of the classes of the community 
to which they severally appeal. Originally many of them were 

• ** If Sir Roger L'Estrange, who started the first regular newspaper in England 
— The Public Intellii^enccr — could revisit * the glimpses of the moon,* he would be 
somewhat astonished at the change which has come over the press in the course of 
two centuries. Indeed, even to the people of the present day, the ever-increasing 
number of public journals must be surprising. There is scarcely an * interest * — 
political, commercial, theological, or recreative — which does not boast its special 
literature. We almost seem to be realising a state of things somewhat like that 
indicated in the American joke about a certain locality which already had three 
newspapers, while * the other inhabitant * was just waiting for a stock of type in 
order to start his. The list of journals devoted to trades is itself a lengthy catalogue. 
We have The Bakers' Record, The Hairdressers' Chronicle, The Hatters' Gazette, The 
Draper, The Miller, 7 he Boot and Shoe Maker, The Paivnbrokers' Gazette, The Watch- 
maker, The Nnuivendor, The Tailor and Cutter, The Journal of Gas Lighting, The 
Farmers' and Curriers' Journal, The Pottery Gazette, and others * too numerous to 
mention.* Among a different class of journals we have The Caterer, The Man of 
the World, The Athlete, The Athletic Nnvs, The Cyclist, and several more devoted 
to the affairs of bicyclists, the latest addition being a new publication entitled The 
Bicycling Mercury. Then we have The Matrimonial Nr^i^s and kindred organs, 
upon which cupids incarnate play to the tune of heavy fees. In addilicm to all these, 
there is scarcely an important branch of industry which has not its labour interests 
represented in the press. One hardly knows where to look for *the other in- 
habitant.' '* — Nnvcastlc Chronicle, March 1882. 


simply circulars, or " prices current " of individuals and firms 
who found them useful in advertising their businesses. In other 


instances the journals were started and have been continued 
without reference to any particular firm or concern. The most 
successful paper of this class has gradually emerged from the 
chrysalis of a private circular into full-blown journalism. To-day 
the well-conducted trade paper is a real necessity of that section 
of the public whose interests it exploits and protects. It is the 
medium for making announcements of new goods and novel 
processes, changes of partnerships, failures, and the thousand 
and one business incidents in connection with every commercial 
calling. The great merit of all trade journals is that there is 
(or, at all events, should be) nothing redundant in their contents. 
Every paragraph or article is expected to be strictly pertinent 
to the titles of the respective papers and the subject treated. 
"In the embodiment of this idea,'* says an enthusiastic corre- 
spondent, who favours me with some special notes upon the 
subject, "lies the (trade) superiority of the class journal over 
the generatl newspaper. This circumstance is really the 
ground of the strong hold such journals maintain upon 
their advertising connections. Every reader of a thorough- 
going and enterprising journal of this sort is a possible buyer 
of the articles advertised ; hence a trade paper, with a regular 
circulation of, say, 12,000 to 15,000 copies, is worth more 
to the advertiser, who only deals with the members of the 
trade represented, than a general newspaper having a circu- 
lation of 250,000 to 300,000, because in the latter case not 
more than one reader in, say, fifty, would be appealed to 
by the technical advertisement. This fact largely explains 
the almost marvellous success of the specialistic organs of 
the press." 

London almost wholly monopolises the publishing offices of 
the scientific and class journal^ the only exceptions of any note 


being Birmirtgham, Manchester,* Edinburgh and Glasgow, 
each of which has one or more papers of the kind under notice. 
In this, as in other matters, however, the Metropolis is found 
the more convenient place of publication, its typographical and 
other resources alone being equal to the requirements of journals 
commanding cosmopolitan circulations. Amongst the leading 
trade and scientific papers there are many deserving of mention 
and commendation. The Ironmonger^ as the oldest journal of 
its kind, may head the list. It is edited by Mr. W. E. Freir, at 
one time on the staff of The Sheffield Daily Telegraph, The 
Engineer is conducted by Mr. Vaughan Pendred ; Engineerings 
by Messrs. W. H. Maw and James Dredge; The Architect by 
Mr. Hobart, and The Builder by Mr. George Godwin. The 
Chemist and Druggist is edited by Mr. A. C. VVootton. Most of 
the trade papers appear weekly, a few fortnightly, and the others 
once a month. Each has distinctive features, and, as a whole, 
they may fairly claim to be conducted with an intelligent ap- 
preciation of the wants of their readers, whilst their enterprise 
varies with the extent and importance of the industries they 
respectively represent. 

It does no injustice to the many excellent publications of this 
description when it is stated that in all probability a rather 
more detailed reference to one of them, The Ironmonger, will 
serve to show the aim, scope, and policy of the whole. The 
Ironmonger, as serving the great metallurgical industries, has a 
wider field in which to work than any other trade journal, and 
it is pretty generally admitted that it has cultivated the ground 
with much spirit and success. Started in May 1859, The Iron- 
monger claims to be the oldest trade paper in the world, with the 

* The Textile Manufacturer, conducted by Mr. W. T. Kmmolt, is one of the most 
remarkable of trade periodicals. It is the leading authority in all that appertains to 
textile fabrics, and is published in the very heart of this great English industry. 
Mr. Emmott has recently added to technical journalism an important weekly, 7/ie 
Mechanical World. 


exception of the Iron Age of New York, which insists upon 
being considered slightly the senior. The paper was issued 
monthly until April 1878, since which it has appeared weekly. 
Its circulation is almost exclusively '* postal." As a weekly T/ie 
Ironmonger has shown considerable enterprise and fertility of re- 
source. It has now its " own correspondents '* in every trade 
centre of great Britain and Ireland ; in New York, Pittsburg, 
San Francisco, Montreal, Toronto ; Auckland, Christchurch, and 
Dunedin (New Zealand) ; Sydney, Adelaide, Melbourne and 
Brisbane ; Hong Kong and Shanghai ; Colombo (Ceylon) ; 
Calcutta and Bombay ; Cape Town, Fort Elizabeth and 
Somerset East (South Africa) \ Alexandria and Cairo ; Moscow, 
St. Petersburg, and several other places in Russia ; Vienna, 
Berlin, Diisseldorf, Frankfort, Berne, Brussels, Charleroi, Paris, 
Marseilles, Florence, Genoa, Madrid, Bilbao, Rotterdam, Copen- 
hagen, Stockholm — indeed, wherever iron, hardware, metals 
and machinery are centred. The contributions of its corre- 
spondents are so well kept up that the paper generally consists 
of eight-tenths or more of original MS. reports and articles. 
Every week a long cablegram is received from New York, and 
is regularly quoted every Monday as the authority as to the 
American markets by over forty daily papers in England and 
Germany. On alternate weeks a cablegram is received from 
Sydney, and this is the recognised Australian market report for 
general circulation. The cable charges from Sydney, it may be 
remarked, are los, lod. per word, and the message frequently 
occupies a space in column of three to six inches deep. After 
the close of the Melbourne Exhibition, the names of the whole 
of the prize-winners, in respect of iron, steel, machinery, im- 
plements, and hardware were cabled home to The Ironmonger, 
at a cost which would bear favourable comparison with any 
amount ever paid by the daily press for a single telegraphic 
dispatch. Successful as is the paper in a literary sense, many of 


the principal metallurgists of the day being upon its staff, it is 
scarcely less distinguished for the extent of its advertising 
patronage. One number alone, in April 1881, consisted of 176 
pages of advertisements, besides manufacturers' lists ; and a 
number published in October last reached over 300 pages, of 
which over 100 were literary, largely composed of a verbatim 
report of the proceedings of the Iron and Steel Institute, which 
came to a close on the evening of the day before publication. 
Ordinarily The Ironmonger consists of about 100 to 130 pages 
weekly. It is a conspicuous example of what may be accom- 
plished by vigorous management backed by a liberal and 
wealthy proprietary. Some of the technical trade journals rely 
more up)on sheets of drawings, or scientific contributions, than 
upon news. Of this order are, perhaps, The Engineer and 
Engineeringy The Builder, The Architect, and some few others — 
all capitally managed papers, and with clever literary staffs. 
The Bookseller, The Publishers Circular, The Stationer, The 
Printers* Register, &c., are, strictly speaking, to be included in 
the coterie of trade journals Several of these, naturally, pay 
great attention to typography and engraving. They all cover the 
ground indicated in their titles, and some of them are both en- 
tertaining and instructive outside the exclusive circles to which 
the editor and the contributors address themselves. 


There is in the United States a great and formidable cor- 
poration known as the American News Company. Here in 
London — one may more truthfully say in England — there is a 
similar institution known as Smith and Son, though here the 
corporation is a private firm. It did consist of the founders, Mr. 
Smith and his son. Mr. W. H. Smith is now the sole proprietor, 
unless Mr. Lethbridge, the chief manager, has a partnership share 


in it, which is more than likely, Mr. Smith represents West- 
minster in Parliament. As First Lord of the Admiralty in Lord 
Beaconsfield's Cabinet, he proved himself to be a capable and 
industrious minister, commanding the respect of his opponents, 
and enjoying the full confidence of the Premier and the Govern- 
ment. He receives a princely income from the famous house of 
business in the Strand, which has been built up by degrees, pro- 
gressing with the progress of joumalism, and being administered 

[Pliolcigraphed by the London Stereoscopic Company. 

to-day with remarkable grip and efficiency. Smith and Son are 
the chief distributors of the London and Provincial press, the 
principal dealers in publications and books. They conduct a vast 
library, similar in character and extent to Mudie's ; their adver- 
tising business is the greatest agency in the kingdom, and they 
have in their employment enough men and boys to populate a 
small town. A feature of their enormous business, which has no 
parallel in the United States or in any European country, is their 


business annexation, on renting terms, of the principal railway 
dep6ts throughout the United Kingdom. They lease the walls 
of the stations to exhibit advertisement-placards, and they have 
a bookstall and newspaper-stand on every platform. Occasionally 
they meet with the competition of some other house, which tries 
to outbid them in their rent to the railway corporations ; but 
they generally manage to maintain their position. The first out- 
lay of a rival for the erection of bookstores all along the great 
roads would be enormous ; and the English are a conservative 
people ; changes are not easily made, especially when there is the 
smallest question involved as to the necessity or advantage of 
change. Smith and Son have almost become an integral feature 
of English railway administration. Their bookstalls give life and 
animation to station platforms, and while the famous firm reap a 
splendid reward from their enterprise, the companies consider 
themselves liberally paid for the accommodation granted. A 
bookstall of Smith and Son is one of the " sights " of a great 
railway station in England. At Birmingham, Manchester, 
Liverpool, Sheffield and other large towns the newspaper and 
literary stores make quite important appearances in their way, 
although only wooden structures. Americans, entering the Mid- 
land or North-Western stations at Liverpool for the first time, 
will be struck with the cheerful aspect which Smith and Son's 
stores and news-stands give to the platform in contradistinc- 
tion to the gloom which generally pervades American dep6ts. 
An interesting illustration would be a sketch made at the 
Charing Cross railway station. On a stall of this description you 
will find cheap editions of the popular novels of past seasons, as 
well as expensive editions of the newest books, together with 
the magazines and other serial publications ; you will find the 
picture-papers temptingly displayed, and all the daily and 
evening papers, with their contents-bills, set out in a row along 
the front of the stall. Though the newsboys go round to the 


trains with trays full of journals and books (they are not allowed 
to enter the carriages as in America), the sales at the stalls are 
enormous. Something akin to the English system are the news- 
stands at many of the stations of the elevated road in New York ; 
but the London bookstall of a great railway is unique. 

At the Charing Cross station, the bookstall completes the 
busy scene of a departure platform where you can take your 
seat for a ride up into the city, to the coast, to many an inland 
town, and to Folkestone or Dover en route for France and the 
continent of Europe. While the Laureate waited for the train 
at Coventry he was interested in grooms and porters on the 
bridge, and he watched the three tall spires. Should the 
thoughtful or poetic stranger find the time pass slowly on his 
hands at Charing Cross, having mastered the news of the day 
at the bookstall, he may find ample food for thought in the 
reflection that the ground on which he stands was once part of 
the green old English village of Charing ; that the last resting- 
place of the body of Queen Eleanor, when it was carried to West- 
minster for burial, is marked by a handsome new cross at the 
entrance of the dep6t ; that the water-gate where Wolsey em- 
barked, broken-hearted, in his barge for Esher is within a stone's 
throw ; and that the historic tragedy of Cromwell's Protectorship 
was enacted close by. When King Charles was executed 
journalism was in the first days of its earliest infancy. What a 
narrative the descriptive writers of to-day would have made of 
that event ! The memory of the King should be specially 
honoured and respected in the commercial departments of every 
public journal ; for he was the first, and probably the last, 
monarch, who patronised the advertising columns of a newspaper. 
" His Sacred Majesty " inserted an advertisement in the Public 
Intelligencer of 1644, announcing that he would ** continue the heal- 
ing of his people for the Evil during the month of May, and then 
give over till Michaelmas next." Le Sceur's fine equestrian 


effigy of Charles was put up in 1674. If his bronze majesty 
(still riding on in statu quo, as poor Tom Hood puts it) could 
record the history of the hours which have been tolled out since 
the drums beat at his sad initiation into the mystery of myste- 
ries he would have no more wonderful story to tell than that 
of the newspaper press. 

( 221 ) 




Mr. Ingram's First Idea of an Illustrated Paper — Charles Knight and John 
Gilbert's Views of the Experiment — Success — Mr. M. Jackson, the Art 
Editor — Famous Artist-correspondents' Adventures in War and Peace — 
The Graphic and the Franco-German War— Christmas Numbers — A 
Brief Biography of Mr. W. L. Thomas — What led to the Projection of 
The Graphic — Pique and Prosperity. 


A VOLUME might be written on illustrated journalism, and 
another on the history of caricature in the Victorian era, with 
illustrations from the comic and satirical press. I hope some 
day to complete at least one contribution towards this latter 
history. The pictorial press of London originated with The 
Illustrated London Nrojs in 1842. The projector and founder 
of this popular paper was Mr. Herbert Ingram. He w^as a 
newsagent at Nottingham. Occasionally, to accentuate notable 
events, murders particularly, the local press published a picture. 
The engraving was as crude as the printing of it was unsatisfac- 
tory, but success always attended the special edition of the 
journal that contained an illustration. The Nottingham news- 
agent was of an inquiring and observant turn of mind. Taking 
note of the great extra sale attending even the poorest kind of 
newspaper engraving, it occurred to him to speculate upon the 
prospects of a journal that should be full of pictures. 

The idea of an illustrated newspaper thus sprung up in his 


mind, and he never rested until he started for London and put it 
into shape. Of course he was told that his scheme was foolbh. 
that it would never succeed. People in all ages have generally 
been so self-satisfied and so deeply impressed with their own 
wisdom that they have never encouraged changes, and they have 
invariably obstructed almost every description of improvement 
and reform. The worst of it is, this kind of national stupidity 
seems to continue. Just as the public ridiculed gas, so they have 
discounted electricity ; and the strangest thing is that experts 

have notoriously been the first to decry advances in directions 
they have been supposed to know most about. Dr. Lardner 
ridiculed the idea of ocean steamers crossing the Atlantic. 
Mr. Charles Knight characterised Ii^ram's notion of an illus- 
trated newspaper as a " rash experiment," which would prove a 
disastrous failure. Mr. John Gilbert (Sir John to-day) lent the 
scheme his countenance, and what was more, drew on the wood 
for it, while other capable artists were found willing to adorn the 
letterpress of the new venture. The paper was not an immediate 


success. Indeed, for a time there seemed every probability of 
Mr. Knight's forecast coming true. Mr. Ingram's capital was 
limited. If he had entered upon the business backed as men 
usually are who start newspapers in these days, he would never 
once have had cause to be anxious. But he was spending his 
own money, and for a time it disappeared like the material 
in Chatmoss during the railway-making, and with as little 
apparent result. The time came, however, when " foothold " 
was secured ; and eventually Ingram stood upon the new-made 
ground, master of the situation. 


Mr. Bailey was the first editor of The Illustrated London A'ezvs, 
He was known among his friends as ** Alphabet Bailey," on 
account of the great number of his Christian names.* Dr. Mackay 
was afterwards, and for some years, its editorial chief. He was 
succeeded by Mr. Stewart, author of '* Footsteps Behind Him." 
The present editor is Mr. J. L. Latey. During several years 
Mr. Mark Lemon acted as Mr. Ingram's secretary and adviser ; 
and I remember his describing to me one of Ingram's difficult 
questions of management. The advertisements increased in spite 
of the charges being often and continuously augmented. When 
one thinks of the struggles of journals because advertisements do 
not come in, it is pleasant to hear of cases where no amount of 
obstructive charges will keep them out. Lloyd's, The Telegraph 
and The Graphic are among these fortunate papers, while post- 
ponements of columns of advertisements are common with The 
Times and The Standard, The Illustrated London News directors 
have wisely adhered to the originator's principle of allowing only 
a limited space for advertisements, the charge for which is now, 

• It is often erroneously stated that Mr. T. H. Bailey, the nautical song- 
writer, was editor of The Illustrated London Xews. 


I believe, in some positions, as high as five shillings a line. 
When Mr, Herbert Ingram died (drowned in an American lake), 
he was member of Parh'ament for his native town of Boston, 
Lincolnshire, the honour of representing which was afterwards 
conferred upon his eldest son Mr William Ingram, who has 
for several years taken an active share in the management of 
the paper, inaugurating some of its latcbt and most important 
improvements in production and policy Mr M Jackson is 

[r holographed by James Monte, 313 City Road, London.] 

the art editor, a position which he has filled for many years with 
distinguished success. Recently he wrote for T/ie Illustrated 
London News an instructive and entertaining sketch of the 
rise and progress of pictorial journalism. Mr. Jackson is a 
north countryman, born and bred in the neighbourhood where 
George Stephenson, and Bewick the wood-engraver, first saw the 
light. With the strong individual characteristics of the "north 
countrie " he combines the southern artistic taste, and his adminis- 


trative powers have been of the greatest value to the establish- 
ment, where he is held in the highest estimation. Mr. Leighton, 
the printer of the paper, is a man of considerable reputation 
among the craft. His colour-printing has been an important 
factor in building up the large fortune which The Illustrated 
London iVeivs has earned for its proprietors. Of his " Little Red 
Riding-Hood" (after Millais). 600,000 copies have been sold. 
" Where have you not seen this familiar picture ? 1 have come 

(riioti^ra|ihed by W. anJ U, Duwncy, Loniion.] 

across it In the .strangest places— on the walls of a nobleman's 
fishing-box, and in the cottage of a Durham pitman ; I have seen 
it hanging over the .stove of an Indian cottage in the civili.scd 
.settlement of Lorette, beyond Quebec, and adorning a screen 
in a Mayfair drawing-room. Mr. Jackson speaks of the wide 
circulation of illustrated papers. "To a certain extent, inde- 
pendent of language," he says, "they are prized alike by the 
civilLsed foreigner and the untutorctl savage." Among the 


subscribers to Tlie Illustrated London News^ for example, is the 
King of Siam. The British troops found copies of the paper in 
King Coffee's palace at Coomassie. Polar explorers in search of 
Sir John Franklin have picked it up in the huts of the Esquimaux. 
Travellers on Chinese rivers and in the heart of Africa have 
been cheered by finding the picture paper in the most unexpected 

In all the modem wars the artists of Tlie Illustrated London 
News have been most conspicuous. The pencil is as adventurous 
as the pen. It is only a difference of work that distinguishes the 
special artist from the special correspondent. Mr. J. Bell, his port- 
folio at his back, is now working his way in search of the novel 
and the picturesque from England to Merv via China. The paper 
was represented in the field during the Crimean war, and as an 
example of artistic and mechanical expedition it may be mentioned 
that the sketch of the Balaclava charge was redrawn at home 
by Sir John Gilbert on a full-page block in little more than an 
hour, and was engraved during the night, and printed the next 
day. A double-page engraving is frequently turned out in four- 
and-twenty hours. " Yet only a few years before the advent of 
illustrated newspapers," says Mr. Jackson, looking up at me with 
his grave intelligent eyes, ** I remember the late William Harv^ey 
telling me that when Whittingham, a famous printer in his time, 
wanted a new cut for the Chiswick Press series of books, he 
would appoint a meeting with Harvey and Thompson, the 
engravers, at Chiswick, when printer, designer and engraver 
would hold a long consultation ; finally, having settled the 
character and plan of the work to be done, they would sit down 
to a snug supper, and then separate to enter upon their respec- 
tive callings the next day. The projected woodcut, measuring 
perhaps two inches by three, would make its appearance probably 
three months after the appointment, the consultation and the 


The "special artist," like the "special correspondent," may be 
said to date from the Crimean war. When an outbreak seemed 
imminent, Mr, S. Read went out for the The Illustrated London 
News to Constantinople and the Black Sea ; and he is still on the 
staff of the paper. Mr. Edward Goodall and the late J. W. Car- 
michael went out during the war, one sending home sketches 
from the Baltic.thc other from the Crimea. Mr. F. Vizetelly was at 

[Pholographcd by W. Cobb, Ipswich.] 

Soiferino and Magenta, and carried his portfolio into the conquest 
of Sicily by Garibaldi, The late R. T. Landclls was in the war 
between Denmark, Prussia and Austria. S. Read and T.A. 
Wilson sketched the more pleasant scenes of the coronation of the 
present Kmperor of Germany at Konigsbcrg. The American C\;i\ 
War had a pictorial delineator in Mr. F. Vizetelly. The Abyssinian 
expedition was attended by Mr. W. Simpson. During the Franco- 


German war The Illustrated London News wa*; most graphically 
served in the field by Messrs. R. T. Landells, W. Simpson, T. H. 
Andrews, and S. J. Staniland. Mr. Prior did excellent work for 
the papfir in the Ashantee conflict. The Russo- Turkish war was 
illustrated by Messrs. j. Bell, M. Prior, M. Hale, C. Corbould 
and J. Montague. Mr. J. R. Wells's pencil told the adventures of 
Cleopatra's Needle. Mr. W. Simpson went to the CEcumenical 
Council at Rome, to the opening of the Suez Canal, and to the 

[I'hotostaphed by Maull and Company, 187 Picoaililly, London.] 

Emperor of China's marriage at Pekin. On the latter occasion 
he made a journey round the world. He also represented the 
paper on the Prince of Wales's Indian tour. He was in the 
Afghan war ; and the recent pictures of the royal marriage at 
Berlin are from his sketches. "When," says Mr. Jackson, "the 
great war of 1870 between France and Prussia broke out, The 
Illustrated London News special artists, on both sides, encountered 
all sorts of hardships and passed through all kinds of adventures. 


Besides being frequently arrested as spies, and undergoing the 
privations of beleagured places, they had also to run the risk of 
shot and shell, and sometimes they were obliged to destroy their 
sketching materials to prevent arrest. The dangers of being seen 
sketching, or being found with sketches in their possession, were 
so great that on one occasion a special artist actually swallowed 
a sketch he had made to avoid being taken as a spy. A 
colleague of this gentleman purchased the largest book of 
cigarette papers he could obtain, and on them he made little 
sketches and notes, quite prepared in case of danger to smoke 
them in the faces of his enemies. When the German armies 
were closing round Paris, an artist consented to be shut up in the 
devoted city, and during the siege his sketches were sent off by 
balloon. Photographic duplicates of the sketches were taken 
and despatched by other balloons to provide against the chances 
of miscarriage, so that sometimes t\vo and even three copies of 
the same sketch arrived safely in my hands at The Illustrated 
London Ne^i^s office. During the Russo-Turkish war one of our 
special artists overcame the difficulties of getting to the front by 
assuming the character of a camp follower and professing to sell 
composite candles, German sausages, Russian hams, dried fish, 
Dutch cheese, &c. ; and when passing Cossacks became im- 
portunate they were propitiated by a candle or two, a slice of 
cheese or a packet of Roumanian tobacco. In like manner the 
artist who went to the port of F'errol, to accompany Cleopatra's 
Needle to London, shipped on board the tug Auglia as a coal 
trimmer, and signed the usual articles as one of the crew, there 
being no room for passengers. After the successful voyage of 
the tug the artist left her at Gravesend, being anxious to bring 
his sketches to head-quarters ; but until he was legally dis- 
charged from ser\ice he ran the unpleasant risk of being taken 
up for absconding from his ship." 

It will be .seen that the newspaper artist's life is as full cf 


venture as that of the journalistic correspondent, with, in warfare, 
the additional spice of danger attaching to the possession of 
sketching materials. Mr. Jackson, who is naturally deeply in- 
terested in the doings of his art-army, is full of anecdotes of their 
experiences. As a set-off to the more dramatic incidents just 
mentioned here are two bits of comedy. An artist goes to 
Lincoln in the wake of the British Association. At one of the 
local hotels he asks the waiter to direct him to John O'Gaunt's 
house, a building well-known to antiquaries. "Johnny Gaunt!" 
said the waiter puzzled, "don't know him, but I'll inquire." 
Another artist is making a sketch in the heart of St. Giles's, 
London. Several street arabs of the district become lively and 
interested spectators of his work. " Can you read or write ? " he 
asks one boy, who seemed a little more intelligent than the rest. 
" No," was the reply, " I can't read and I can't write ; but I can 
stand on my head, and drink a quartern o' gin." The first of 
these stories reminds one of the antiquarian who went to hunt up 
the scene of " the battle of Worcester," and was taken to ground 
where two famous pugilists fought for the belt of the Prize Ring. 
It was a more intelligent waiter than the Lincoln man whom 
one of Piiuch's friends encountered in a famous old English city. 
"Well," said the traveller, an epicure who always went in for 
the particular meat or drink of a district or country — " well," he 
said, with a hungry and anxious look, " and what are you cele- 
brated for here?" "Why, sir," replied the waiter, "there's the 

cathedral and the castle, and " The traveller stopped him 

with a frown and ordered dinner. 

Many of the first artists of the day, Royal Academicians, living 
and deceased, have drawn for The Illustrated London News, and 
among the present permanent staff may be mentioned Messrs. 
R. C. Woodville, \^^ H. Overend, F. Dodd, A. Hunt and 
C. Robinson. The machinery is of the newest and most im- 
proved kind, the latest addition being the Ingram rotary press, 


which prints both sides of the illustrated sheet at once, cuts 
each number to its proper size, folds it, and turns it out com- 
pleted at the rate of 6,500 per hour, which, for pictorial work, 
is a remarkable advance on the machines hitherto used in The 
Illustrated London News office. It occupies the same space as 
an ordinary perfecting machine, and requires only four men to 
attend to it ; whereas thirty men and five " two-feeders " were 
required to do the same amount of work under the old system. 
The late Mr. Shirley Brooks (who succeeded Mark Lemon as 
editor of Punch) for many years wrote the leading article in The 
Illustrated London News. Recently Mr. George Augustus Sala 
has added to its attractions by current notes on the events and 
chat of the week. Fiction is also being called to the aid of 
fact, Mr. William Black leading off the new departure with a 

The Illustrated Times was a cheap competitor of The Illustrated 
London News, and was a clever and popular journal for some years. 
It was ultimately owned by the Ingrams, who converted it into 
The Penny Illustrated Paper, which has an enormous circulation. 
Zig'Zag belonged, I believe, to the same proprietary, and for a 
time The Sporting and Dramatic Nezvs was the property of the 
present Mr. Ingram. It is now owned by Mr. Weblin, who is 
better known by his professional name of Walter Clifford. The 
Pictorial World is a threepenny * journal of the old Illustrated 
Times class. It seems to have become an established institution. 
Messrs. Collingridge (of The City Press) and a joint-stock 
company started it. In an interval of these and other pictorial 
enterprises there appeared in the autumn of 1869 The Illustrated 
Midland News, w^hich aimed to do for the Midland counties what 
the great London paper did for the Metropolis and the rest of 
the world. The country paper, with a good staff, both of writers 
and illustrators, began well, eventually having the whole of its 

* The price has recently been raised to sixpence. 


work done on the spot. The conductors introduced engraving 

and pictorial printing into the provinces, and succeeded in 

producing a high-class paper. Miss Bowers drew for it. Mr. 

John Leighton, Mr. Lawson, Mr. Eltze and even Dore were 

occasionally employed upon it. Mr. Swain, the well-known 

Punch engraver, superintended and executed many of the 

engravings. A year was not long enough for the establishment 

of such an enterprise. The principal capitalist in it "fainted 

by the way," and then plucked up courage enough to carry his 

plant to London, and having dissolved partnership with his 

editor, called the journal The Illustrated Newspaper^ grew tired 

of it, and let it die. In the December of the year which saw the 

birth of Tlie Illustrated Midland NeiL's appeared The Graphic^ an 

entirely new advance in pictorial journalism. It was projected 

and produced by Mr. William L. Thomas, who is still its chief 

director. His firm administrative hand may be traced in every 

department, litcrar>', artistic and commercial. At the outset he 

obtained the assistance of Mr. N. Cooke, who was for a time the 

partner of Mr. Herbert Ingram, of The Illustrated London News ; 

and in addition to this valuable co-operation, Mr. Thomas 

obtained the financial alliance of his brother, the late Mr. Lewis 

G. Thomas, who was much respected as a merchant in the 

Brazils, and who induced many of his friends connected with 

that country to take a pecuniary interest in the venture. The 

paper at once obtained great public favour. The Graphic was 

not only a new departure in pictorial journalism ; it was fresh, it 

was progressive ; there was no other paper like it. There was 

no servile imitation of existing weeklies either in its matter or its 

pictures, and both being good, the public soon began to like it, 

and to patnjnise it liberally. 

The leading policy of the originator of The Graphic was not 
to confine the illustrations, as had hitherto largely been the case 
in illustrated papers, to a special staff of draughtsmen on wood, 

'/l.LCSTl^JTE/) /.OXDOX \KH:S- ,t.\l> 'GRAPHIC 233 

but to welcome any artist of talent, no cnatter what medium he 
used ; the result bcin^ that he obtained the assistance of such 

accomplished painters as S. Luke Fildes, A.K.A., H. Hcrkomcr, 

A.R.A.. Frank- !Ioll, A.R.A.. Mrs. Uutler (Miss Elizabeth 
Tliompson), Miss Patcrson (now Mrs. Ailing-ham). K. J. Gregory. 
W, Small, Charles Green, Sydney F. Hall. an<l nianj- others of 


note. Secondly, the conductors were not satisfied to fill their 
pages with mere news and sub-editorial work ; thej* arranged 
with eminent literar>' men of the day to write original essays and 
stories, Anthony Trollope, Victor Hugo, Wilkie Collins, Tom 
Taylor and Charles Reade ha\'ing been among the contributors. 
Then in due course came " wars and rumours of wars," and The 
Graphic (as well as Tlu Illustrated London News) became a 
necessity, seeing that it supplemented the current news of the 
dailies with faithful pictures of the exciting e\-ents of the time. 
The Franco-German war sent up the circulation of The Graphic 
by many thousands a week, and Mr. Thomas well deser\'ed the 
success which now lifted his ideal illustrated journal into a great 
prosperity. When some established journal is rivalled by a ne^i- 
comer, public gossip predicts trouble for one or the other, and as 
Tlie Graphic grew, this shallow forecasting, which does not count 
progress in its calculations, predicted the eclipse of Tlte Illustrated 
London Sews. But the result has been no diminution of pros- 
perity at the old house, while the new one has extended the taste 
for pictorial illustration so much that many other weekly papers 
now find a certain amount of advantage in pictorial adornment. 
The two extra numbers of The Graphic, issued in the summer 
and at Christmas, are now printed entirely in colours, and such 
is the popularity of these holiday editions that they have to be 
commenced nearly twelve months in advance, that they may be 
printed in time to supply the demand for them. Four hundred 
and fifty thousand copies were printed of Mr. Millais s " Cherry 
Rifxr," and yet the orders from the newsagents were so far in 
excess of that number that the publisher had to return upwards 
of three thousand pcjunds for orders he could not execute. The 
1 88 1 Christmas number went to press with 450,000 copies. It is 
vcr\' commonly supposed that The Graphic is amalgamated with 
or interested in other illustrated papers. This is not so. From 
the commencement it has stmxi alone. Its first editor was Mr. 


Sutherland Edwards. Mr. Arthur Locker (brother of the lyrical 
poet) is now the literary chief. Among the leading artists whose 

work is frequently seen in its pages arc Mr. Sydney P. Hall, Mr. 
Charles Green, Mr. H. Herkomer. A.R.A., Mr. S, Luke Fildes, 
A.R.A., Mr. Gmifroi Durand. Mr. E. J. Gregory, Mr W. Small, 


and Mr. H. Wcxxls, who has been elected an Associate of the 
Royal Academy during the passage of these chapters through 
the press. 


Mr. Thomas, the originator of The Graphic, was born in 1830. 
In 1845 he v/ent to Paris to stay with his brother, the late 
George H. Thomas, who, although only twenty-two, had esta- 
blished a good business there as an engraver on wood. In those 
days French publishers employed English wood-engravers. Now 
English publishers have to go abroad for their best workmen in 
this branch of art labour. After a year in Paris Mr. Thomas 
came back to England to finish his scholastic education. His 
brother, in the meantime, received an advantageous offer to go to 
New York and start an illustrated paper there. He accepted it. 
Mr. W. L. Thomas went across the Atlantic with him, and 
remained two years in the United States. The climate did not 
agree with the brothers. They returned to England, the elder 
to make designs for American bank-notes, the younger to enter 
the establishment of Mr. VV. J. Linton and learn wood-en- 
graving. In 1848, young Thomas joined his brother in Rome, and 
studied drawing in the French Academy of that city. After a 
year's study he returned to England and commenced to engrave 
on his own account. From that period to 1869 he gradually 
built up an extensive business, employing as many as twenty 
engravers. At every spare moment, as a relief from his black- 
and-white work, he practised water-colour painting. His 
efforts in this direction were rewarded by his election to a 
membership of the Institute of Painters in Water Colours, 
which Society has lately paid him perhaps the highest com- 
pliment in its power. In the forty-seventh year of their 
existence they have decided to vacate their present house and 


build new galleries in Piccadilly, opposite Buriington House, 
and, from being a close corporation, to throw open their 
walls to the general body of water-colour artists. To enable 
them to acquire the necessary capital they have formed a 
limited liability company. The whole of the necessary sum, 
;f 50,000, has been subscribed, and Mr. Thomas is elected 
chairman of the Board of Directors. 

Dealing with the origin of The Graphic, nobody has yet 
indicated the first motive of its projection. At the time of its 
appearance London correspondence in country papers, and 
journalistic gossip in town, offered various explanations in regard 
to the project. Some said the great success of the early numbers 
of The Illustrated Midland Neivs had stimulated a band of 
capitalists to undertake an opposition to the famous Ingram 
property. Others declared that ** a ring " of engravers and 
artists had taken the scheme up to promote their own business 
interests. " The man who knows " quietly informed his friends 
that The Graphic was only another of the schemes of The I I his- 
trated London Neivs, to keep costly rivals out of the market. I 
see no reason why the chief factor in the projection of The 
Graphic should not now be declared. It is not only an interesting 
incident of the open page of every-day romance, but it represents 
one of those ** exceptions " to what is regarded as " a general rule," 
which is full of worldly instruction. Pique, one might better say 
a sense of injury and wrong, was the impulse which started The 
Graphic. A man of the world would shrug his shoulders at the 
idea of imparting feeling or sentiment into business. A project 
arising out of offended dignity would be repudiated as a foregone 
conclusion of failure by most men. In the world of newspapers, 
a journal started to oppose another on the ground of wounded 


susceptibilities, or a personal affront, would be looked upon as 
doomed from the start. Failure was generally predicted for 
The Graphic. Its name was ridiculed, to begin with, and the 
novelty of the work was resented by many who had grown 
accustomed to The Illustrated London News method. Had it 
been known that The Graphic was really projected as a rival 
to TJie Illustrated London News, under a sense of personal 
annoyance and injury in certain relations between the Thomases 
and the Ingrams, prophecy of evil would have been greatly 
stimulated. We owe many valuable inventions to accidental 
discoverie*?, but we owe very few newspapers to pique. Such 
advance in illustrated journalism as The Graphic has brought 
about, however, we owe to what Mr. Thomas regarded as an act 
of injustice towards himself, and a slight put upon the memory 
of his dead brother. The correspondence in this matter exists. 
It is docketed and put away in the archives of the two great 
offices. Some day it will be unearthed. Resentment has long 
since cooled down into indifference ; and success has converted 
an active heat into a burnt-out volcano. The reader is not 
invited to preside at the resurrection of a dead scandal, but to 
take note how strangely important influences upon the world's 
daily life are brought about. It cannot be denied that T/te Graphic 
has been a great motive power in the art progress of the time. If 
it had done nothing more than induce its established rival to 
extend its art appliances and keep pace with the demands of the 
age it would have done a good work. And yet the primary power 
behind all this was entirely personal. Mr. George Thomas had 
been a famous draughtsman on The Illustrated London News. 
Mr. W. L. Thomas was its leading engraver. George died. His 
brother projected an ** In Memoriam " volume for the benefit of 
the widow and family, and as a tribute to the dead artist's memor>^ 
He asked the proprietors of The Illustrated London Neius to lend 
him for this purpose some woodcuts of his brother's drawings. 


Technical difficulties and explanations of policy were offered for 
declining the application. Mr. John Parry, executor of the late 
Herbert Ingram, conducted the correspondence on behalf of 
The Illustrated London News. The technical objections which 
he considered as insuperable, in regard to the "In Memoriam " 
volume, were somewhat imaginary ; and though the refusal of 
Mr. Ingram to lend the blocks was conveyed to Mr. W. L. 
Thomas in courteous and even kindly language, it was a refusal, 
and rankled as such in the applicant's mind. And this, and 
nothing else, led to the starting of The Graphic, Fortunately 
for Mr. Thomas and his friends, the projector had an e^cceptional 
knowledge of the work he had set himself to do ; and to-day he 
may regard wath complacency an incident which once was a 
source of irritation and offence. The Graphic has not hurt The 
Illustrated London News. As already remarked, it only in- 
creased the taste for pictorial journalism. The two papers eclipse 
all other illustrated papers in the world, and the story of The 
Graphic is instructive in many ways. It is refreshing in these 
prosaic days to come upon an instance of competition which has 
not for its entire raison d'etre the common ambition to make 

2x> jornsAUSTic losdos. 


The OMcst and Newest I'cnny Daily — Sir Al^jcrnon IVirthwick, Diplomat 
anrj Journalist— A Clerical Fox-huntini^ VAnor — Coleridi^c and the Post 
— The I'iti LiIhtI Suit - Murder of Mr. livrne. Proprietor of the Post— 
The Knipire of Ouvcn Victoria- -Briti-h Interests — The London Elditor 
at Work — The World's Half-Way Ho".:-e and Kead-Centrc of the 
An'.do-Saxon kac:. 

It is fittinj; that I should concluflc these notes on London 
journalism with the newest of the penny dailies, and a few 
j^eneral reflections. The newest penny daily is, oddly enough, 
the oldest and most aristocratic of journals. The Morning Post. 
While I am writing, the machinery is being erected at the well- 
known offices in Wellington Street, Strand, to meet the increased 
demand which is expected for the organ of the fashionable world. 
Sir Algernon Horthwick, its accomplished chief, has maintained 
the high character and efficiency of The Morning Post, in spite of 
many disadvantage(;us circumstances. His connection with the 
paper dates from his earliest days. He has edited it for nearly 
twenty years. Son of a father who represented Evesham in Parlia- 
ment, Sir Algernon comes of a good old family, and possesses many 
special advantages in the conduct of his paper. Always having 
welcome admission to the highest society at home and abroad, he 
has been enabled to inspire The Morning Post \\\X\\ the best authen- 
ticated information of courts, parliaments and embassies. He 


was intimately acquainted with the late Lord Palmcrston, and was 
the medium selected by Lord Bcaconsficld for conveying to the 
ex-Empress Eugenie the saddest intelligence of the latter days 
of the Zulu war. In many interjiational affairs Sir Algernon's 
advice has been sought and acted upon by both foreign and 
English ministers. He is a man of frank and courtly manners, 
and his generous disposition has endeared him to a large circle of 
friends. For twenty years, as I have said, he has edited TIte 
Morning Posl, at the same time possessing a partnership interest 

in it. During the last five years he has been proprietor as well as 
editor, and it is quite a general sentiment that his journal, which 
has hitherto been so successful, has entered upon a new lease of 
prosperity at its new and popular price. Sir Algernon Borth- 
wick-, notwithstanding his ripe experience, is still a young man, 
with the gait and manner of a young man, though his Journalistic 
career commenced as Paris correspondent under the rule of the 
Prince-President ; and his acquaintance with politics began in the 
salons of Lady Normanby and the Duchess of Grammont in the 


exciting days of 185 1. His residence in Eaton Place is one of the 
best known of society houses. Lady Borthwick (a niece of the 
late Lord Clarendon, and allied to the families of Villiers and 
Russell), as a leader in "the great world," possesses special 
qualifications for the position. A linguist, an artist, a musician» 
she is popular in the best sense of the term. Royalties, the 
aristocracy of birth and genius, " the salt of the earth," meet in 
her drawing-rooms, and never find her receptions dull. 


Sir Algernon Borthwick is of all men in the world the best 
chief for The Morning Post, the histor\' of which is a combination 
of the most characteristic traditions of the English press, and the 
policy of which has always been inspired by a high sense of 
journalistic responsibility. It was established on the 2nd of 
November, 1772, when it was a folio sheet of four pages. It was 
at first published without a stamp, and at the price of one penny. 
7 he Morning Post might therefore call itself the oldest, instead of 
the newest, penny daily. After the first thirteen numbers, how- 
ever, it succumbed to the pressure of the Stamp-office, and came 
out with the official mark. " And," to quote the announcement 
of the period, " although every paper stands the proprietors in a 
penny extraordinary, the various publishers will now be esta- 
blished in every part of the town, where it will be regularly 
sold for the moderate price of three halfpence." In those days 
T/te Post had five metropolitan contemporaries, The Morning 
Chronicle, The Public Advertiser, The Public Ledger, The London 
Packet, and The Gazetteer. The Morning Chronicle, a first-class 
newspaper, failed to reach its centenary. It may be said to have 
died from the suspicion of a French subsidy. The Times, 
published originally under the title of The Daily Universal 
Register, was not established until thirteen years after The 


Morning Post, The Rev. H. D. Bate was one of the first 
editors of the paper. He was a type of the dashing, fighting, 
fox-hunting parson of the period. He had an affair with a 
Captain Stoney, in which he showed great personal courage ; and 
he died, as stated in a previous sketch, a knighted dean of a 
probably benighted Irish parish. His patron was the Prince- 
Regent, whose cause he espoused in The Morning Post. In later 
years Tlie Morning Post included among its writers of prose and 
poetry Charles Lamb, Southey, Coleridge, Sir James Mackintosh, 
Arthur Young, Wordsworth, Thomas Moore, James Jerdan, 
Mackworth Praed, and James Stephen, 11. P. — a wonderfully 
brilliant list of contributors. Wordsworth's political sonnets 
created a good deal of stir in society. Many of Tom Moore's 
most charming lyrics appeared in The Morning Post, Coleridge 
was regularly engaged on the paper. Fox declared in the House 
of Commons that " Coleridge's essays in The Mor?iing Post had 
led to the rupti^re of the Treaty of Amiens." When the 
illustrious author of the " Ancient Mariner " heard of this, he said, 
'* I am not, indeed, silly enough to take as anything more than a 
violent hyperbole of party debate Mr. Fox's assertion, or I should 
be proud to have the words inscribed on my tomb." Coleridge 
at this time lived in King Street, Covent Garden. He began to 
write for the paper in 1797, and continued to do so until 1802. 
It has been said, with truth, that " the first band which bound 
Coleridge, Lamb, Southey and Wordsworth in an indissoluble 
union was a column of The Morning Post:' 


The Pitt administration found a staunch advocate in The 
Morning Post. Mr. Nicholas Byrne, the proprietor, was a rich 
descendant of a Tory family. His life was twice attempted, and on 
the second occasion he was fatally stabbed. The event occurred 


about fifty years ago. Mr. Byrne was sitting alone in hb office. 
A man iOiddenly entered, wearing a mask. Rushing upon the un- 
armed editor, he stabbed him tmice vbith a dagger. The office 
was besieged^ and the windows smashed, by a Radical mob on the 
occasion of Sir Francis Burdett's liberation from the Tower. No 
journal has had more litigation. The proprietors have fought 
numerous libel suits in the interest of the liberty of the press, and 
at considerable cost. As an enterprising collection of news. The 
Alorning Post has always held a foremost place. The late Lieute- 
nant Waghcm, " the pioneer of expresses," organised its agencies 
At a time when submarine cables did not exist, it was the first to 
announce the capture of Ghuznee and the fall of Kars. In recent 
days its foreign intelligence has been remarkably accurate, and it 
has forecast many important political events which the excellent 
opportunities and prescience of its chief enabled him to foresee. 
Judging from its general tone, its politics may be described as 
Liberal-Conser\'ative, with a strong and distinct leaning to what 
is called "imperialism" in foreign affairs. A collaborator with 
.Sir Algernon Borthwick in the direction of the paper is Mr. 
Hardman, who also finds time for the magisterial duties of 
chairman of Quarter Sessions. Among the leader-writers are 
Mr. James Knowles, son of the eminent pla>'\vright, and Mr. 
Baker-Green, who recently contested, without success, an Irish 
Ixjrough ; while several members of Parliament, on both sides of 
the House, contribute to its editorial columns. The reviewing 
staff is a considerable one, much attention being given to litera- 
ture and art. This department is under the direction of Mr. 
Henry Uunphie fwho is also a leader-writer of acknowledged 
skill;, while his brother, Mr. Charles J. Dunphie, author of **The 
S[)le idid Advantages of Being a Woman," and other volumes of 
e-;says, is the dramatic critic. One of its foreign correspondents 
was Mr. Edward \-^^'g'^. who is now the proprietor and editor of 
I he Whitehall Rri'ieic. The [>aper has for many years been 


printed and published in palatial premises opposite the Lyceum 
Theatre, Wellington Street, Strand, but at its original price of 
one penny it is likely to be removed to still more extensive 


While these papers were being written, the prospectus of a 
new evening paper was published. It was clever, but it pointed 
out some of the shortcomings of the daily press in a spirit of arro- 
gance that could only have been justified by successful rivalry. 
Mr. Yates found it much easier to explain what a perfect daily 
paper ought to be, than to demonstrate how an evening journal 
should mirror all that is interesting and important in the history of 
every day. His intentions were excellent, his design full of merit, 
but The Cuckoo was the result. The proprietor's practical ex- 
perience had taught him that an unsatisfactory premitre in a 
journalistic experiment is even harder to redeem than the ** first 
night" failure of a new play. He did not persevere in the work 
which he had set himself. With a more suitable inscription on 
his banner, and a thorough redemption of the promises of his 
prospectus, he might by this time have planted his flag on 
the heights of success. The failure of The Cuckoo has, in all 
probability, only postponed other " light and elegant " essays in 
the field of personal and gossiping journalism. It is, however, 
to be noted that this class of paper (as has already been pointed 
out in the case of the daily Figaro) must always feel the dis- 
advantage of those stirring events which enhance the circulations 
of the more serious journals. Amidst *' wars and rumours of 
wars," threatened rebellion at home, and open rebellions abroad ; 
in presence of the bloody enterprises of Nihilism, and the san- 
guinary adventures of Russians in Central Asia, or Englishmen 
in Afghanistan ; with the peace of Europe continually trembling 
in the balance, our public is not in the humour for a daily 


paper devoted to mere chat and gossip and condensed notes of 
current events. No journal can live in England that has not 
in its composition a strong substratum of earnestness of purpose 
and intention, an earnestness that must be above the idea of 
being only entertaining, an intention that must be beyond that 
of ** suckling fools, and chronicling small beer." 

At the same time, with great humility, I venture, in conclusion, 
to indicate some points of contrast between the London and 
Provincial press, and between the press of England and America, 
which are worthy of attention. The vastness of the Empire of 
Queen Victoria, and the various and wide-spread character of 
" British interests," are proved in a remarkable way, not by what 
the metropolitan daily papers contain, but by what they do not 
contain. There is no London daily journal in the local sense ; 
no paper that represents the great city as the dailies of New 
York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, represent theirs. The 
English provincial paper gives a full and ample record of local 
news, as the American journals do. But the London papers 
cover the Empire, and deal with events of foreign cities sometimes 
more fully than with the incidents of their own. If "imperial- 
ism " had not become a by-word with certain party organs, one 
might be tempted to call the London journals imperialistic in 
their character and policy. The London editor sits in the 
midst of a telegraphic organisation which brings St. Petersburg 
as near to him, for all practical purposes, as his own suburban 
residence. He has a special and private wire under the Channel 
to Paris. He knows the latest scandal in the gay city, the 
last intrigue at Constantinople, Bismarck's most recent moty 
the newest ministerial move at Athens, the price of bacon in 
Chicago, the exact list of casualties caused by floods in Holland, 
what the Pope said to his cardinals about Ireland, how the 
Emperor of China feels toward his exported subjects in San 
Francisco ; but how little he knows of the daily romances and 


tragedies of the London streets ! The minor legal courts of the 
Metropolis deal with many curious and interesting cases. Our 
County Court judges adjudicate upon thousands of suits in a 
year. It is only once in a way that one of them comes into 
the great court of Public Opinion — the newspaper. The higher 
courts of law are in the hands of legal gentlemen, who often 
report the trials in such a way that one must be a lawyer to 
understand the decisions. The clever specialists forget that to 
the outer world the jargon which overlies the rules and orders 
of the courts is as mysterious as Sanskrit. Many important law 
suits are never heard of by persons who do not read The Times, 
and the system of reporting police trials is singularly inefficient. 
At some of the courts one reporter represents all the papers, 
morning and evening. The London police-court is the very 
pulse of London life, and almost every beat of it is worthy of 
being recorded. Go to one of these establishments any day. 
For several hours you will be alternately entertained and 
shocked by scenes from the great drama of life, farcical and 
tragical ; you will meet with instructive incidents in the domestic 
and political economy of the government, local and general ; 
curious episodes of our civilisation, stranger tokens of our bar- 
barism ; the moving stories of a great city's daily history. The 
next morning look into your daily paper, and you will find, 
perhaps, only the very briefest reference to the court ; and pro- 
bably the report of only one case out of the dozen that you 
would deem worthy of public remark. It must be a sensational 
murder, a great scandal, or a matter of national importance, 
that stirs the London editor in the direction of the police-courts. 
Then there are the learned societies, literary, scientific, 
historical, geographical, antiquarian, social, religious, medical, 
legal, artistic ; they are meeting all the year round to read papers 
and discuss the great questions of the time that belong to their 
several lines of study or general usefulness. Men of European 


fame deliver addresses at these meetings. But only when a 
Livingstone, a Stanley, or a Schliemann comes among us is 
the bull's-eye of the press turned upon the learned societies. 
Mr. Huxley often speaks without being reported ; yet editors 
of periodicals and publishers of books will pay him anything 
to write for them. At the annual dinners and meetings of 
these associations speeches are made by men of the highest 
eminence, to be dismissed by the daily papers in a few lines, 
and often not mentioned at all. There is a mine of journalistic 
wealth for a local London newspaper in these interesting gather- 
ings. London is governed by many public bodies, including the 
City Corporation, the Board of Works and the Vestries. All 
kinds of social and political problems are continually before 
these authorities, yet one rarely hears of them. The list of 
neglected subjects might be extended to quite a formidable 
length. Let it not be understood that any of them are put 
forward as a reproach to the seven morning and six evening 
papers of London, but rather as an illustration of* the width 
and breadth of the interests they represent, and as showing 
how the doings of the world, its comings and goings, its trade 
and commerce, its wars and tumults, and its general pressure, 
are noted and registered at this centre of universal business, 
this half-way house to everywhere, this world within itself, this 
London, the head-quarters of the Anglo-Saxon race. 

It has long been a settled belief of mine that the Metropolis 
wants a real London newspaper in the best local sense. Perhaps 
the reiteration of this opinion during many years originated a 
daily paper called The Circle, which caught up the parochial 
features of it, and made them the leading items of interest. A 
journal that expected London to find pleasure and attraction in 
the tedious and statistical orations of vestrymen, and the vulgar 
disputes of Boards of Guardians, soon found itself in a tight 
corner, and ** went up,'* to use an American phrase. Relieved of 


this enterprise, Mr. Saunders redoubled his labours in the ex- 
tension of his famous news agency, which is now reaching out 
its electric arms to the United States. Some day another jour- 
nalist will appear and " square " that Circle with mathematical 

American journalism has its European head-quarters in the 
English Metropolis. During the recent wars of Ii)urope and 
Asia, the great Eastern and Western papers expended large 
sums of money here and " at the front " in the collection of news 
and opinions. There are instances in which they have been 
ahead of the London press in the announcement of great Euro- 
pean events. The Herald^ TribunCy and Twies, of New York, 
have for years had resident correspondents in London, gentle- 
men of experience and distinction ; and in times of excitement, 
the regular daily cables of their own American Associated 
Press in the City are supplemented by the notes and opinions 
of these tried and trusted representatives. During the Russo- 
Turkish war the Times, Tribune, and Herald, of New York, had 
representatives with the armies on both sides. Even the two 
Chicago dailies sent members of their staff to cable English 
opinions from London. On this central ground of knowledge 
press men of all nations arc destined sooner or later to meet ; 
though the day seems as far distant as ever it was, when artist- 
correspondents of some Antipodean Graphic, shall make pictorial 
studies of the great dead City, from the ruined arches of London 

riiK KM).